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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/460

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Labor and Labor Legislation (cf. C. E^ Vni- transportation. Its decisions are lesally binding

719b). — ^The most important developments in Amer- upon both parties. Nevertheless, it lias not pre-

ican labor legislation during the last decade relate vented all strikes, nor proved satisfactoiy even to

to workmen's compensation, child labor, and the all employers. Most probably it will not be copied

adjustment of industrial disputes. In the great by many other States, nor long survive in its pres-

majority of our States the old employer's liability ent form in Kansas.

statutes and practices have been supplanted by Aside from workmen's compensation laws, no

laws which enable an injured workman or his heirs form of social insurance has yet been enacted in

to obtain compensation without a lawsuit and the United States. All competent students of

through administrative commissions. The word industrial conditions realize that the wage earning

"compensation," instead of '^liability," connotes a classes will not have sufficient security until they

complete change in both the theory and the nrao- are protected by insurance against sickness, acci-

tice of dealing with occupational mjuries. Under dents» invalidity, old age, and unemplo3rment. All

the old system the employer was '^liable" for such these contingencies and liabilities should be met by

injuries, but only when he was at fault. In the industry, since industry is at once the beneficiary

present system the industry is made accountable, of the wage earner's life work, and the only source

whether or not any blame attaches to the employer, of provision for his life needs.

Hence the employee is not required to show that The general condition of the laboring classes

he did not mean to assume the risk of injury, nor cannot be regarded with any degree of complacency,

that his "fellow servants" are free from blame, nor The best statistical estimates snow that, measured

(as a rule) that his injury was not due to his own by purchasing power, wa^es in the United States

negligence. All that is necessary is to establish nave rather steadily dechned since the beginning

the fact of injury. The new conception is that the of the present centiuy (see articles in the "American

majority of accidents are not anybody's "fault," Economic Review," December, 1914, Jime, 1917, and

but are, in the existing circumstances, unavoidable. September, 1921). While the right of labor to at

Hence the injured man receives "compensation" leaist a living wage is more frequently recognised

instead of "damages," the extent of the injury than was the case twenty-five, or even ten years

determining the amoimt of compensation. In some i^o, it has not been formally adopted, either in

of the States the rates of compensation are still tneoiy or in practice, by the majority of industrial

too low, but even in these States the injured concerns. Labor organizations have steadily in-

woikers secure a far greater indemnity than was creased in numbers and power, but they have been

possible under the old system. unable to secure recognition from some of our

The child labor laws have been improved in greatest industrial corporations. Nor have they

many States. At present not more than half a yet begun to show an3rthing like an adequate appre-

dozen States are grievously backward in this re- ciation of their industrial responsibilities. Cflass

spect. To meet their obstinacy two statutes were antagonism has increased greatly in the ranks of

enacted by Congress. The first forbade the ship- both employees and employers. FVom present con« 

ment in mterstate commerce of the products of ditions and tendencies it seems clear that industrial

establishments employing children unoer fourteen peac^ stability, and justice will not be approxi-

years of age. This law was declared unconstitu- mated until such changes are made in labor's status

tional by five of the nine justices of the United as will make the worker more interested in his

States Supreme Court. The second national statute work, through participation in management, profits^

imposes a tax of ten per cent on the net profits of and ownership. John A. Rtan.

such industrial establishments. Its constitutionality « a^*»Ai%r%4» rw^^«. ^-. /t ^ r^

has not yet been determined. -p^^ ?S'^^^" ""^ (Laquhkwiiensis; cf. C.

The National War Labor Board was composed of f- vJJfc^^?!; '^ t^^e provmce of Avellmo South- six persons representing the employers of the coun- p^^^i^J^L:^^^^^ P^'^r ^KSS""' ^aetano tiy, an equal numberlepresenting employees, with f'^^'^r^H} *^Vm ^^ "^u^' ^^7i^^^™^ an impartial person as chairman of each ^oup. l!^^„l5 ^f^lif/^^? ^^^"'^^^^^^^^^^ The bi^ard poiessed efifective powers of invlstiga)- regained vacant until 22 ^ptember, 1915, when tion, but its decisions were not compulsory. Never- fi* lif/:, Cosma Agostmo, Bishop of Anano, wjs theless, it was able to prevent the occurrence of 5?^°'° ?t*'^??i;^^^ *?J^ governed the any^port^nt strike or lockout. Unfortunately it diocae^til 22 May, 1916. A new bishop was then

w^ abSished by Congress a few months after the ?PP2'?^?? '^. *^^ P^^^^o?! ^!i ^^^ Francesco armistice ' Manei, bom m Bisaccia, 1855, and serving as canon

The Railroad Labor Board is a legal body, con- £fjjii!?jij*7. ^Ul?^^'^> °/k^^^^PP^*°'>S^-oJ^ sisting of three men representing tL companies, ?^*^i^^ °(, ^^^l^^^^^

threTrepresenting the employees, and three repre- S^^'^^A ?] P^'Jf^f?' f t.?!?u1*^ ^'iLiT^^"? senting the general public. While it has adjusted ^1^*5^1 JLi??^™^^ ^ Brothera, 4 Sisters, and many minor disputes and prevented one great ^^ churches or chapels, strike, it lacks an industrial code, or set of prin- ciples, such as that provided for the guidance of Lacombs, Albert, Apostle of the Cree and Black- the National War Laoor Board. feet Indians, b. at Saint-Sulpice, Quebec, on 28

The Kansas Industrial Court is a tribunal of Februaiy, 1827; d. at Midnapore, Alberta, on 12 three judges having power to adjust all disputes December, 1916. He was ordained at St. Hsracinthe in four industries, namely, food, fuel, clothing, and on 13 June, 1850, and two years later he joined