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bom whites numbered 13»575 or 13.4 per cent; classes of students are admitted to the lectures and

among the negroes, 35,404 or 18 per cent. The class work: matriculated, non-matriculated, and

decrease of illiteracy among negroes from 23 per special two-year course students. A special secre-

cent in 1910 to 18 per cent in 1920 shows the gain tarial course is offered, and a very distinctive

in Maryland's educational standards. In 1920 there feature of the institution is its Paris branch, situ-

were 2423 public elementary and high schools with ated in the most desirable quarter of Paris, where

181,547 white and 43,543 colored elementary pupils girls of the junior year of college may spend a year

and 15,541 white and 987 colored high school pupils, in travel and study, taking courses at tne Catholic

The state expenditure was $8,918,441. Bible reading Institute, the Sorbonne, and the conser\'atories of

is neither permitted nor excluded in the public music and art. Various societies and clubs are

schools. Tne State Board of Education (seven organized among the students; Apostleship of

members appointed by the governor) selects the Prayer, Association of the Children of Mary, La

state superintendent as the executive officer of the Societe de Ste Constance, English Dramatic Club,

board and through him has control of the public Classical Club, Debating Society, Orchestral Society,

school system. The appointment of county super- Glee Club, Riding CIud, and Athletic Association,

intendents and supervisors is made by coimty boards Mother M. Gerarci, R. S. H. M., is the present (1922)

of education, subject to the approval of the state dean of the college; the faculty number 8 religious

superintendent. and 5 lay professors; total registration of students.

The State laws governing private and parochial 50.

schools are as follows: The State Board shall require *»-_. r'x,*«m«. ai^« nr^^^^^^nsr^^r f^f n i? all privateeducational institutions to report as to en- jJ^l Chapter and Convbntum, (cf. C E.,

roUment and couraes of study; no private imrtitution JiL ?. ir^hJ'Trw r^rhf omfnoft^n^thp

not approved shall issue any certificate, diploma, W' ^"<^ *^« ^k .1 ! *^^ tr "^ "^Ifi^^ ^

or d^ree. St. Charles College at Elllcott City J>^^P :^l ^' t*^^?!|^k^ ^T ^^/^.r'^'^'^f J* '« 

was d^troyed by fire in 1911; the new St. Charles t^^^^^^,' ?, '^'InnlTl'fnawJ f^n^^th m^^^

was built at Cantonsville. For Catholic educa- ^ ^^ISr'Sr;* Ll nnThn, nH^^^^^^^^

tional details, see Baltimore, Archdiocese op. ifrj£ Jh. f.Sfii ! f v,. ^.wLniS IJt ^T \?Jh

CHARiTiBS.-There are (1921) 8 Catholic hospitals, f^^ ^i^° fulfills the obligation for him, unless

12 orphan and infant asylums, and 6 trial reform ^^L 2!?i^"^*' "^^^^^^ ""' ^ ^^^"^^ ^'^^°°' '^^^^ schools in the state. otherwise.

Recent Legislation.— In 1913 an amendment to Mass, Sacrifice of the (cf. C. E., X-20).— All the Constitution placed the penalty of bribery at priests are bound to say Mass several times each elections on the buyer of votes as well as the seller, year, bishops and religious superiors, however, In the next year, a State Tax Commission was should see that they all do so more frequently, on created to supervise and equalize assessment of Sundays and other feasts of precept at least. Re- property and taxation; a Workmen's Compensation garding the Mass .pro populo, the Code provides Act was passed, and a measure providing for the that if a feast is transferred so that not only the county unit of electing United States Senators, office and Mass but the obligation of hearing Mass In 1915 four amendments to the constitution pro- and of abstaining from servile work is transferred vided for referendum, reclassification of property to another day, bishops, vicars capitular, and parish for taxation purposes, parole in criminal cases, and priests (parochial vicars representing chapters or home rule for Baltimore. A State Board of Prison other moral persons; also vicars oeconomi), are Control was established in 1916. In 1918 child obliged to apply Mass for their flocks on the latter and woman labor was regulated. The legislation day, but not on the original feast. If a bishop or of 1920 aimed to correct some abuses in state gov- parish priest has charge of more than one territory emment by providing for the merit system, and he need offer only one Mass; hitherto his obligation for the centralization of the purchasing depart- was multiple. The parish priest should say the ment; a State Athletic Commission was created to Mass for the people in the parish church, unless supervise boxing and another commission was ere- it is necessary or advisable to say it elsewhere, and ated to supervise and prepare industrial and welfare for a just cause the local ordinary may allow him laws. Maryland refused to ratify the Woman's to change the day of celebration. In May, 1911, Sufifrage Amendment, 17 February, 1920, and was the Holy See declared that in parish churches where the sixth State to ratify the National Prohibition only one Mass was said parish priests were obliged Amendment, 12 February, 1921. to say the Mass pro po-fndo, according to the office

War Record. — During the European War Mary- of the day even on Sundays to which had been

land's contribution of soldiers numbered 47,054 or transferred the solemnization of the feasts of the

125 per cent of the United States Army. The Epihany, Corpus Christi, Sts. Peter and Paul, the

Maryland members of the National Guard united chief local patron and other feasts, and that they

with the 29th Division at McClellan, Alabama, and would not fulfil their obligation by the Mass of

those of the National Army with the 79th Division the solemnizations mentioned. If a priest is obliged

at Camp Meade, Maryland. A summary of casu- to say a conventual Mass and the Mass for the

alties among the Maryland members of the Amer- people on the same day, he must celebrate and

ican Expeditionary Force gives the following figures: apply the former Mass personally, and the following

deceased, 62 officers and 913 men; prisoners, 54 day must ofifer the latter himself or get another

officers and 1109 men; wounded, 129 officers and priest to do so. Vicars Apostolic, prefects Apostolic,

2675 men. and quasi-parish priests are bound to do so at

«- * « „ r,, '^^* o^ ^^c feasts of Christmas, the Epiphany,

Marymoiint OoUege, Tarry town-on-Hudson, New Easter, Ascension Thursday, Pentecost, Corpus

  • ^'""I institution, conducted by the Religious Christi, the Immaculate Conception, the Annuncia-

of the Sacred Heart of Mary, was established in tion, St. Joseph, Sts. Peter and Paul, and All Saints*

1908 through the munificence of Mr. James But- in other respects they are bound by the ordinary

ler, K. G. C, of New York City, who also founded regulations in this matter.

Marymount School for Girls. The college com- A priest should always use the altar bread pre-

prises four buildings, and has a well equipped scribed in his Rite when saying Mass. It is an

laboratory, conservatory, and gymnasium. Three impious thing, even in case of extreme necessity