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number of pupils and instructors, courses of study, cariate Apostolic of Belgian Congo , and entrusted to

cost of tuition, and the general condition of the the Redemptorists. By a Decree of 31 May, 1921,

institution or school unoer their charge; school the boundaries were somewhat enlarged by the

moneys shall never be appropriated to aLy religious addition of certain territory taken from the Vicariate

sect for the maintenance exclusively of its own Apostolic of Leopoldville. The present and first

schools. Cities and towns containing more than prefect apostolic is Rev. Jo^ph Heintz, appointed

500 families must maintain hi^h schools. Cities of 1 Augast, 1911. Statistics are not yet published.

20,000 inhabitants must provide manual training, --^. ^^ ,,, ' ,

and cities of 60,000 inhabitants must maintain^v^ ^ ^**^?5?*' oa^w T u ""^ (Matanzansis; cf .

ning high schools. A i^stem of continuation C. E., XVI— 36a), m Cuba, suffragan of^^^^^

schools provides for the education of iUiterate S"*"*' T^® ^"^ ^'^^?^ of this see, Rt. Rev. Charles

minors tetween fourteen and sixteen who are at Wa™" .^H^^/ "^^^A??*^®^!.*^ ^^^ ***"^^ ®^ °^

work. There are also stringent provisions as to Hetelonia m June, 1915, and his successor was ap-

the employment of minorTbetw^n sixteen and ppm ted m the person of Rt. Rev. SevenanoSainzy

twenty-ine, intended to prevent illiteracy. A de- Bencamo, 11 I^ebruay of the same yew^ Bora in

partment Jf University Extension under the State Cuba ml 871 he served as vicar general of San Cnsto-

board of Education oiianizes and maintains a com- S>rodeLaguna, and was named a prelate of the^Holy

December, 1920, was: in courses, 43,455; correspon- fi^^S^JSJXJT ? l^^

dence courses, 13,012. The recent ^blishment of *?k ^^ ^' ^

Smith's Agricultural School in Northampton and »^"'

the Independent Industrial Shoe-making School Matera, Archdiocese op. See Acerenza. in L3mn show the trend of education in Massa- chusetts. Iffaturin. Basil — Churchman, b. in 1847 in Ireland,

There are (1918) 181 teachers in the normal where his father, an Episcopalian clergyman, had a

schools of the State; in the public schools there living at Grangeiorman: drowned in 19 15 in the* 'Lusi-

are 630,878 pupils with an average attendance of tania^' catastrophe. Attergraduating at Trinity Col-

93 per cent. The proportion of teachers is 2089 legCi Dublin, he went to England and became Dr.

male and 16,913 female. The total support of the Jebb's curate at Peterstow. He remained there for

public schools amounts annually to $36,614,623. three years and then joined the Cowlev Fathers and

The State law relative to Bible reading in the was sent to St. Clement's in Philadelphia, Pa. , where

public schools reads: A portion of the Bible shall he achieved great popularity as a preacher. In 1897

be read daily in the public schools, without written ^f^^™? * Catholic at Beaumont, was ordained m

note or oral comment; but a pupil whose parent, 18^» *^<1 ^?? 'pade Chaplam of the Oxford under-

or guardian, informs the teacher in writing tliat he 8!^"ate8. He is the author of several books on the

has conscientious scruples against it, shall not be P"^^ual life.

required to read from any particular version, or to luro'rimo.natj. o^ jx^t cuc.^rtou

take any pereonal part in it The school committee M«^«al^to- See Bolbhevism.

shall not purchase or use school books in the public Mayotte, Kossl-B^ and Oomores, PREFEcrruRE

schools calculated to favor the tenets of any par- Apostolic op (Insularum Majottab, Nobsibejb et

ticular religious sect. There are 97 high schools Comoro: cf. C. E., X—90d), off the coast of Africa,

and academies with 10,645 pupils. The local annual These islands, with the rest of the Comoro group,

tax for school support per child between the ages are entrusted to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost. At

of five and fifteen is $43. The total valuation of present the prefecture is administered by Rt. Rev.

all public school property is 194,608,586. There are Auguste Fortineau, C. S. Sp., titular Bishop of

within the State 17 colleges or universities, 5 of Chytri and vicar apostolic of Diego-Suarez. It

them devoted to the education of women. There embraces a total population of 50,810, and by 1916

are 3 medical schools; 2 additional law schools statistics (the latest available) is credited with 5000

have been recently opened. The Massachusetts Catholics, 6 churehes and 4 missionaries. Institute of Technology is the only college receiving

State and Federal subsidies. There are forty schools Mazara del Vallo, Diocese of (Mazaribnsis; cf.

for the dependent and the afflicted. C. E., X-94c), in the province of Trapani (Sicily),

For Catholic educational and religious statistics suffragan of Palermo, nas a Catholic population of

see Boston, Archdiocese of; Fall River, Diocese 300,0(d. The bishop, Rt. Rev. Nicola Audino, b.

of; Springfield, Diocese of. 15 October, 1861, at Caltanisetta, appointed to the

Recent History.— During the European War the see of Lipari, 28 November, 1898, transferred to

State contributed 132,610 soldiers to the U. S. Army the Diocese of Mazaro del Vallo, 22 June, 1903.

(3^ per cent). As in the case of all New England succeeding Mgr. Gaetano Quattrocchi, decease4r<

regiments, the soldiers were stationed at Camp The diocese numbers 27 parishes, 6 convents for

Devens, which was established near Ayer, Masa- men, 300 secular priests, 30 Brothers, 80 Sisters,

chusetts, incorporated either in the 26th Division 1 seminary with 30 seminarians, 16 elementary

as were the Massachusetts national guards, or in the schools with 16 teachers and 250 pupils, 1010 homes,

76th Division as the membero of the national army. 8 asylums, 14 hospitals, 2 day nurseries. Eleven

The summary of casualties among the Massachusetts associations are organized among the clergy and

members of the American Expeditionary Force is as twenty-eight among the laity. One diocesan and

follows: deceased, 206 officers, 2749 men; prisoners, fourteen parochial bulletins are published in the

25 officers, 205 men; wounded, 456 officers, 9864 diocese.

men. The Massachusetts men served valiantly at Persons of importance deceased since 1910 in-

Belleau Wood, Argonne Wood, and Soissons, and <^l"de Can. Prof. Antonio Castiglione, orator, his-

were in the thick of the fight in France when the torian, and founder of a charitable institution, and

armistice came. Can. Davide Ajello. educator, and founder of the

Mutual Aid Association.

Matadl, Prefecture Apostolic of (De 4 diocesan synod was held in 1908, the first

Matadi), erected through a separation of the Vi- diocesan Eucharistic Congress in 1910, and the sec-