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K. Y., near Peekskill, on the banks of the Hudson Government.— In 1920 a Council of State was 1^^* J addition to conducting missions, their formed to administer the country until the future ^f^u u ^^^ *^°^* *^^ Fathers of Mercy have care government is decided upon. Municipalities have of both French and English speaking parishes in been established wherever possible. America. Education. — Before the war the Department of Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borrombo (cf. C. E., Public Instruction under the Ottoman government X-20lb).— During the World War 45 institutions maintained in every sanjak and caza, a primary of the order were given over to the care of wounded school, in which Turkish and Arabic were taught soldiers and 137,(K)0 soldiers were nursed in these ^^"®® °* charge. The various religions had their own hospitals. Owing to the privations and hardships schools in Baghdad and Basra. In 1906 the German of the war the death rate of the membere doubled. co°?ul at Baghdad offered to subsidize the Car- Sister, Salesia Backes, mother general of the order melite schools in the countiy if they would undertake at Trier, died 10 March, 1912. Her successor Sis- ^ *^^^ German. The French Dominicans and ter Eugenia Coenzler, died 14 December, 1920. The °^*°^ ^.^ Mossul conducted over a dozen schools in present general superior is Sister M. Aloy^a Schmitz ^^® neighborhood and carried on educational work After a postulate of eight to ten months, candi- among the Chaldeans. The jjeople as a whole are dates remain at the mother-house for the canon- ^^^ illiterate and education is the crymg need of ically prescribed novitiate of one year. Temporary ^ ® ^^^*^- ^^^^ *^^*' occupation, the Bntish vows are then made for three years, after which liave opened up about 90 schools, final vows are taken. At the present time (1921) Economics. — Mesopotamia is a land of great the order at Trier numbers 1400 members, 66 branch potentialities, especially in the matter of oil deposits, houses, 56 hospitals and orphanages, 10 boarding ^° June, 1919, the ancient canal Saqlawiyah, near schools, day schools, and sewing schools. On 6 Felluiah. was lormally reopened, and the waters of March, 1921, the constitutions of the order, with *^® Euphrates allowed to pass through. Before the mother-house at Prague, were definitely approved ^*' t^® ^^y railway in Mfesopotamia was the small

n^^ A^i^TiY^ZT^kiiJ l^ '^- "^r?"^ ^^o^- !"»«• were buUt for militaiy pui^ (1100 mfles)

SS^ed^n«^THl',^:^lJ%Ti5^*'?SSf ^^' On 15 January the line niiiang*from Baaaorah U>

W^^m,3 in l^SlnF'TV^ ^^ ^« ^'i \w ?? BMhdad wa« opened to traffic. A raflway from

Jmu^?^ lOlfi ^lHSl?«f^U?°*'5?'*v*'T ^^ TeEeran to Baghdad is under consideration. The

flHtT^S ™L r»tt^ 5S ^?'!f* ^^'a°^ total commerce in 1919 amounted to $95,463,362,

PmLtXnfWn™ «?S<JS\?^^ """^j ?2S o^ which the total exports wer« $35,761,342; the

JhSS'o*? c& °^ '"^^^ ^ P"^* '^"'^ '^ i-P«>^. K9.702,020.^Cotton constituted about

•M- 1.1 n, ^^ P®"* ^°* °^ ^^^ imports.

MescMer, Moritz, ascetical writer, b. at Brig, Recent History.— Mesopotamia belonged to tha

Switzerland, on 16 September, 1830: d. at Exaeten, Turkish empire until the World War when it was

Holland, on 2 December, 1912. He entered the conquered by Indian and British troops, who occu-

ftsociety of Jesus in 1850, when his native land was occupied Basra on 22 November, 1914, and Baghdad

peraecutme it. He had studied first at the Bene- on 11 March, 1917. In the Treaty of Versailles

dictme fechool of Engleberg, and then at a little (1919) Mesopotamia is recognized as an independent

college of his Jesuit compatriots. He studied phil- state, to be placed under mandatory power. The

osophy for two years at Bonn, taught humanities to Supreme Council awarded the mandate to Great

the jimior scholastics; made his theology at Ratisbon. Britain, was ordained to the priesthood in 1862, and finished

his theology at Mana Laach. He passed his life of Messina, Archdiocese of (Mebsanensis; cf.

sixty-two years as a Jesuit, almost exclusively among C. E., X— 216c), in Sicily, also bears the title of the

his fellowKJOuntrymen, engaged mainly in writing. Archimandritate of San Salvatore (Sanctissimi Salva-

He was eighty-two years old when he publiejied his tons Messanae.) The present incumbent is Most

last book, and for still another year he wrote for ttie Rev.Letterio d'Arrigo Ramondini, bom in Messina,

"Stimmen. He never taught theolo^, but because 15 November, 1849, appointed 24 March 1898. He

of his profound studies in that particular science and is assisted by a coadjutor, Most Rev. Angelo Paino.

his thorough knowlecke of Suarez in particular, his promoted to the titular see of Antinoe and named

works on the Holy Ghost, the Sacred Heart, St. coadjutor 10 January. 1921. This diocese has a

Joseph, the Blessed Virgin, his life of Christ, and his Catholic population of 313,932, and comprises 139

"Meditations" place him in the ranks of theological parishes, 300 priests and 540 churches or chapels,

specialists. He was twenty-one years master of The Archimandritate of San Salvatore of Messina

novices, sixteen years rector of great colleges; he has 9 parishes, 1 vicar, 6 vicarial chapels, 68 priests,

served three times as provincial and fourteen years as 59 churches or chapels and a Catholic population of

assistant general. In 1872 he was thoudit to be at 22,000, (1920 statistics).

the end of his career, but it was precise^ then that --^. ., , „ • xi. i o- *-^ *

his hterary activity began to display itself , and books Methodism, following the general Protestant

and articles came from his pen year after year. trend, has m recent years agitated the question

•,^^^^-^_. A . , , . « .of union, but without definite results. Negotiations

MMopotajnla.~An mdependent State, under for the union of the Methodists, Congregationalism,

r^^ or?"^'^ ^ mandatory, which has an area of and Presbyterians in Canada were in 1917 post-

143.259 square miles, and a population, accordmg poned until the second year after the war. No

to the census of 1920, of 2,849,282. definite action has yet (1922) been taken. Efforts

th 1090^^^' . lollowmg statistics are given in to unite the Methodists and the United Brethren

tneiyiJU census: ol-, i_ r ^, • .. ^ , came to naught and negotiations for the proposed

uVaa noTi.A ^^n J'ot iS^/.,5'o^i!?,'^9.^H^!:! union of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the

Baghdad 524,414 750,421 62,665 20,771 2,133 Methodist Episcopal Church. South, were finally

& '• .7q'7?q ^^i't^ }2'2ff «'55i o?'?i? abandoned in 1918, the chief obstacle being the

Mosul. 579,713 22,180 14,835 55,470 31,180 status of the colored Methodists. The proposals

Total.. 1,146,685 1,494,015 87,4588 78,792 42,302 of the Lambeth Conference of 1920 on church