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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/55

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profiecution. inability of petitioner to produce wit- from the very foundation of this nation, we re-

neases or aepositionB. deceased, and miscellaneous affirm in this hour of stress and trial our most

reasons which include denials because petitioner sacred and sincere loyalty and patriotism toward

claimed exemption from military service on ac- our country^ our Government, and our flag

count of alienage. The number of certificates Acknowlec^mg gladly the gratitude that we have granted during the last fiscal year was 163,656. always felt for the protection of our spiritual lib- According to the 1920 census, of the 13,497,886 erty and the freedom of our Catholic institutions foreign-bom whites ten years of age or over, 1,488,- under the flag, we pledge our devotion and our 948 or 11 per cent were reported as unable to speak strength in maintenance of our countr3r's glorious English. jBoth the number and the per cent are leadership in those possessions and principles which

about one half as large as in 1910, when 2,953,011 have been America's proudest boast We

foreign-bom whites ten years of age and over, or stand ready, we and all the flock committed to 22j8 per cent of the total, were returned as unable our keeping, to co-operate in every way possible to speak English. Of the 105,710,620 persons shown with our President and our national Government, by the 1920 census as constituting the population to the end that the great and holy cause of liberty o? the United States^ 4,931,905 persons ten years may triumph, and inat our beloved cotmtry may of age and over are listed as illiterates. Of this emerge from this hour of test stronger and nobler figure 1,242^72, or a percentage of 2 JO, are native than ever. Our people now, as ever, will hse as whites; ana 1,763,740, or 13.1 per cent are foreign- one man to serve the nation. Our priests and con- bom white& Of the total number of illiterates secrated women will once again, as m every former twenty-one years of age and over (4,333,111) the trial of our country, win by their bravery, their native white males form 13j0 per cent and the heroism and their service, new admiration and ap- native white females 11.0 per aent. Of the total proval. We are all true Americans, ready, as our negro population of ten years and over, 8,053,225, aee, our ability, and our condition permit, to do the ilhterates are given as 1,842,161, or 22.9 per whatever is in us to do, for the preservation, the cent. Uliterac^r among the rural population of the progress, and the triumph of our beloved country." United States is found to be 33 per cent greater Some of the outstanding results of the movement than m the cities. Of the 4,931,905 illiterates ten for better citizenship may be stated as follows: years of age and over in the United States, 2,976,793 Development of special teacher-training courses, reside in the rural district, as against 1,955,112 in the methods and textbooks dealing with the teaching cities. In the cities illiteracy is slightly greater among of citizenship to aliens; introduction of an elemen- the females while in the rural sections the reverse tary course in civics in 6551 Catholic elementary is true. Figures furnished by the Bureau of the schools and in many other public and private Census based on the 1920 census show that illiteracy schools; establishment of numerous night schools is decreasing. The decennial illiteracy percentage and other special schools afifording facilities to the for the years 1880 to 1920 are 17.0, 135, 10.7, 7.7, immigrant for the study of the English language

  • ™ ^-O* .Ml- J • u I. ^ ^^^ ^^^ preparation for the naturalization process;

The decrease m ilhterecy and m the number of organization of community Amercanization activi- persons unable to sp^k the English language is ties by Catholic and other agencies in many cen- explamed partly by the decrease m immigration ters of foreign population; a closer imderstanding during; the war and an mcrease in the facilities and a more sympathetic attitude by the native- supplied through the Americanization movement, bom toward the unassimilated groups of our for- cspedaUy those enabling the immigrant to leam eign population: education of the immigrant peoples the English language. Twenty-ax states have re- to a sense of their duty to become American citi- eently enacted laws requiring the use of the English zens while enjoying the opportunities and benefits lajiguage as the sole medium of instruction for of our country; a general awakening of the Amer- ftU common school subjects. Cathohcs and orgam- ican people to a keener sense of their obligations sations representing them unquestionably carried and responsibilities as citizens; a reduction in out a program of practical and constructive Amer- illiteracy among both the native-bom and foreign- icanisation work unexcelled by that of any of the bom population; a more widespread appreciation numerous groups and organizations participating in and a greater usage of the English language, espe- this Hreat movement. Especially was this true of cially by non-English-speaking immigrants; an in- the Cathouc schools whose Amencanism during crease in the number of naturalized citizens; and after the crisis of the war, measured up to the enactment of legislation restricting immigration and highest standards of patnotic duty. The war gave the consequent debarring of many undesirable aliens the Catholic school another chance to prove be- from the United States; adoption of protective yond a doubt that its teaching of religion and of measures agaii^st immigrant exploitation; establish- practicia morality develops the finest type of ment by Catholics and others of immigrant agen- citiaenship. It proved that the Catholic school cies at ports of embarkation and entry; co-ordination believes m America, teaches love and respect for throughout the United States of follow-up work Ainerica, and is second to no other American in- aimed to protect the faith of Catholic immigrants sUtution m its promotion of American ideab. Dup- and to hasten their assimilation as American citi- mg the period of the World War the Catholic zens: and a more general recognition of the fact that flchool engaged m every form of national aid and religion is the foundation upon which good govem- patnotic endeavor. It sent its product, the parish ment and good citizenship rest. The pioneer efforts school boy, mto the service m numbers out of all of those engaged in Americanization work during proportion to the stnct demands of loyalty. The the war and reconstruction period have laid the tpmt of patnotum as developed in the Catholic foundations for its continuance in the schools and school has probably never been better stated than elsewhere as one of the permanent and necessary m the historic pledge c^the American Hierarchy forces of education in the interest of the public delivered to President Wilson at the entrance of welfare. America into the World War by the late Cardinal Bulletin of Department of Interior, Bumtus of Census.

Gibbons, a product of the Catholic school. The Naturaliiation and Education. The U. 8. Bureau of Educa-

foUcmiiMs is an excemt from this pledge: "Stonding '^\^^,^ TZ'^*:^^HtZ l?it i^T^

firmly upon our SOua UatnollC tradition and history untten on the geiuNral subject of Americanixation. See in