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particular Thompson. Schoolino of the Immigrant (New York, For the Syrian Rite the diocese 18 united to that 1920); Daniklb, America via the NeHfhborhood (New York, .f MurHin nnri ia nHminiRt^rpri hv Mm* RRhmAni

iwo) Pam xvi Miixn, Old World TraitB Transplanted (New g^ Marcun ana IS aamimsterea Dy Mgr. nanmani, York, 1921). and Da?i», immi{frant Health and the Commun- bynan Fatnarch Of Antiocn. toT the Armenian ity (New York, 1921); Buecxinridob, New Hornet for Old Rite the see is vacant, Rt. Rev. Elie Andre Chele-

i^^Z 1""% l^^^l n\^'vy^ixP; So?^wfth!niSJ?* n^"?? V bian, who filled it from 1899, having been thrown

liflhed by National Catholic War Council, Washington, D. O.): . . * , ,«• • mie t innA al ^ i\ru\

Program for Citizenahip, Civic Education Through Motion mto the Tigris in 1915. In 1920 there were 5,000

Picture*; Speaken' Outline of Talke on CititeMhip; The Armenian Catholics, 300 Syrians, 4,180 Chaldeans, l:S*'S:^'^olA^^'^^U^^^Z^nt^:'T}i, lOO Melchitea, 132000 Schismatic and \6m Mo-

KnightM of Columbus in Peare and War (New York, 1920); hammedans in the dlOCese. There are 18 miS- WiLUAMB, American Catholics in the War (New York, 1921); sionary priestS, 10 parishes, 10 churches Or chapels

p'7^-.S;;^/«S?iu?I)?°K^"pJ„iiS^^«^^ and 12 schools for the Armenian Rite; 12 native

Education (published by Fauhst Press, via. chapter on •j.a^i. l ^ji/^ i.\J r^\^ u "Americanism of the Catholic Schools"); Lapp. The Catholic pnests, 9 Churches and 10 flchools for the Chaldean Citizen (New Yoik, 1921). Rite.

Charles A. McMahon. * i -r^ ^ . * ^ »,

Amiens, Diocese of (Ambianensib; cf., C. £.,

Amette, L^on-Abolphe, Archbishop of Paris, I-429d), comprising the department of Somme,

Cardinal, b. at Douville, Eure, 6 September, 1850, France, is suffragan of Reims. Rt. Rev. Jean-Marie-

d. at Antony, Paris, 29 August, 1920. He made his L6on Dizien who came to this see in 1896, died 27

early studies at Evreux, whence he entered the March, 1915, and was succeeded by Rt. Rev. Andre

seminary of St. Sulpice, and was ordained in 1873. du Bois de La Villerabel, appointed 1 June, 1915.

His first appointment was to the cathedral at Bishop de La Villerabel was transferred to Rouen

Evreux; in 1880 he was made private secretary to 9 December, 1920, and Canon Lecomte, Vicar Gen-

the bishop. Later he became a titular canon and eral of Lille, was appointed to succeed him 9 March,

vicar general of the diocese, and in January, 1899, 1921. In 1912 the church of Notre Dame de Bre-

was consecrated Bishop of Bayeux. In February, bi^res, at Albert, a minor basilica, was granted a

1906, he was raised to the titular Archbishopric of Gregorian altar, i. e., the same benefits are attached

Sida and made coadjutor to the Archbishop of to Masses for the deceased as to those offered at

Paris with the right of succession. On the death the privileged altar of the church of St. Gregory

of Cardinal Richard, January, 1908, he succeeded on Monte Coelio in Rome. By a decree of 12

to the see, and 27 November, 1911, was created December of the same year no more Gregorian

cardinal-priest. Entering on his episcopate shortly altars are to be granted. In 1920 there were 520,161

after the passage of the law of Separation, he faced Catholics in this diocese, 60 primary parishes, 609

the delicate and difficult task of a general religious succursal parishes, 173 chapels and 772 churches.

reorganization. At the head of a body scorned by

the ruling powers, he yet won his way to the hearts Ammadara, a titular see of Africa now known as

of the people and conquered the respect and con- Haidra, north of Tebessa, not a suffragan of any

fidence of those in authority by his rare qualities of metropolitan see. The city was of Byzantine origin

heart and head and sheer devotion to duty. To and its name appears under numerous forms: Ad

this huge work Cardinal Amette brought unfailing Medera, Admedera, Almedera, Ammedara, Am-

tact, an innate gift of graceful conversation and medera, and Metridera, The city is identified with

eloquent public speaking, and a rare faculty of the modem Haidra, situated about twenty-two miles

realization and aoaptability. His policy was one northeast of Tebessa. It was originally a colony of

of conciliation wherever possible ; his preoccupation, veterans founded by Vespasian or his sons, whence

Eroblems of practical action for the glory of God; the name, Colonia Flavia Augusta Emerita Am- is aim, the re-establishment of harmony between maBdara. Despite the ruins to which it was reduced religious and secular society. by the Arab invasion, or by modem excavations.

During the World War Cardinal Amette never important remains are still found on both banks left his diocese and was everywhere a pillar of of the river Oued Haidra, but principally on the strength and consolation. Taking his place in all left bank. The Council lists diow many bishops public functions, he was one of the most ardent of Ammedara, where Christianity seems to have

represented. He was likewise the champion of the Like^ most of the other African cities, Ammedara

workman, being instrumental in obtaining much was invaded by the her^y of Donatism and at the

beneficial legislation in his behalf. conference of Carthage in 411 the Catholic bishop

One of the great joys of Cardinal Amette's epis- Speratus found his schismatic rival, Crescentianus,

copate was the consecration of the Basilica of the also there.

Sacred Heart at Montmartre, 16 October, 1919, at AmoviblUty (cf. C. E., I-437a).— The Code of

which the papal legate, mnej»rdiiml8 and ne^^^ Canon Law prescribes that all dioceses are to be

the bishops of France assisted. Before all a man ^^^^^^ j^^^ parishes, each having its own priest,

of God and a tme shepherd of souls under his ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ho enjoys fixity of tenur^, not

leadersbp 46 churches were erected m the dioce^. absolute fixity, however, as he may be removed in

and five are in the course, of construction ; pansh ^ , , Rectors, consequently, are classed as

committees and pansh umons have been formed; irremovable or removable, according to their greater

free primary instmction, abohshed by the proscnp- ^^ j^ stability of tenure. As a rule aS new

tion of reliKious orders, has been given a new parishes are to have irremovable rectors; once a

existence, while an organized l"erarchy by its ^^^^ j^ ^^^^ ^^^^ irremovable all his succes-

vi^lant and apostolic action has established the ^^^ ^^. ^j^^ ^^^ privilege. Among the reasons

best of matenal, moral and spiritual conditions. ^^^ removing rectora of eitler class are ill-health,

Amida (Diarbekir), Diocese of (cf. C. E., I-429c), mal-administration, loss of reputation, or public

of the Armenian Rite, in Mesopotamia, Asiatic hatred, even when unmerited, if it is such as to

Turkey. It comprises also the Chaldean and Syrian interfere seriously with the spiritual welfare of

Rites. Rt. Rev. Suliman Musa Sabbagh, appointed the parishioners. In the legal procedure for the

6 June, 1897, is bishop for the Chaldean Rite, removal of rectors, the chief aifference between