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AMOT 41 ANOHIALOS

the two classes is that the irremovable mav demand I-448d), in the province of Rome, Italy, is directly

a second investigation of their case by the bishop subject to the Holy See. Leo XIII conferred upon

and two synodal examiners, and may even then the bishops of this see the perpetual right to the

appeal to a tribunal composed of the bishop and pallium. Bishop Sardi di Rivisondoli, who was

two diocesan consultors, whereas a removable rec- appointed to this see in 1908, was transferred to

tor if he is dissatisfied with the first decision has the titular see of Csesaria in Palestine and was

no remedy but an appeal to the Holy See. succeeded by the present incumbent, Rt. Rev.

. _. . ,, - Silvio Gasperini, b. at Bevagna, 1852, appointed

^^^J\ni^?^'^y.^^^^^ °f (Amoensib; cf. to the Congregation of the Consistory 2 December,

C. E., I-437C), m Chma, is entrusted to the Spanish 1912. In 1920 the Catholics of this diocese num-

Dominicans. Fonnerly the island of I^rmosa bered 41,700; there are 26 parishes, 60 secular and

formed a part of this vicariate, but m August, 1913, 52 regular priests, 20 seminarians, 50 churches or

It was made an Apostolic Prefecture, the civil pre- chapels, 23 brothers and 113 sisters, fectures of Lonyen-tcheou, Yung-tchoen-tcheon,

Hing-hon-fou, the island of Nanjik and the small ^^^S*^"* — ^°^ ^^^^^ history see Asia Minor

islands dependent on the prefecture of Hsing-houn- <C. E., I-782c).— The present confusion in Ana-

fou, beine joined to it. The present vicar apostolic <^olia lies in the eagerness of the great powers to

is Rt. Kev. Emanuel Prat, titular Bishop of share in the after-war despoliation of Turkey.

Mactaris. In 1920 the total population of this terri- Even as early as 26 April, 1915, in the Pact of

tory was 4,500,000, of whom 10,682 are Catholic, and London arranged between Italy and her allies,

of this number 2,143 are in Formosa. There were France, Great Britain and Russia recognized

5,214 catechumens, 21 European and 10 native Italy's desire to maintain a political balance of

priests, 15 churches, 24 chapels, 96 stations, 1 semi- power in the Mediterranean and her right to

nary with 30 students, 23 schools for boys, 18 for take over, at the break-up of Turkey, a portion

girls, 50 orphanages, and 13 religious of the Order equal to theirs in the Mediterranean, namely, in

of St. Dominic. that part which bordered on the Province of

A-.^«-t— / ^ fn_ \ Tx. Adalia, where Italy had already acquired special

Ampnrlas (or Cabtklsaww and T^mpio), Diocm rights and interests laid down in the Italo-Biitish

OP (Ampuribnsis; cf. C. E., I-440c), m Sanhma, is convention. In the Treaty of Sevres, August,

suffragan of Saasari. The see was vacant from ig2o, Smyrna with the surrounding strip, compris-

1907 until the appointment of the present bishop, i^g Tireh, Odemish, Magnesa, AkhissarT Bergama,

Rt. Rev. Giovanni Mana Sanna, b. at Oristano, ^nd Aivali was to be administered by Greece under

1873, appomted bishop 22 December, 1914. During Turkish sovereignty, but in five years a plebiscite

Its vacancy the see was administered by Mp-. ^^s to decide to whom the district was to be

^i^^J' J^^^3i^I??P °t ®^^?- ^ ^^, -A^PFjf* annexed. The Turkish Nationalists objected to had 11,200 Catholics, 8 Danshes, 20 secular priests, the loss of their part of western Anatolia, and 5 seminanMis, 34 churches or chapels; Tempio had immediately commenced a campaign for the re- 29,200 Catholics, 18 parishes, 42 secular pnests, 5 ^'^^^^ ^f the treaty. They overran Anatolia and seminarians and 73 churches or chapels. goon had 300,000 troops there. To the powers it Amyione, a titular see in Caria, Asia, now known became evident that the Treaty of Sevres could as Mazyn-Kalchsi, suffragan of Stauropolis. Until not be executed without a prolonged struggle, and the Roman epoch the little city of Aymzone had a conference was called in London in February, its own coinage, bearing the insignia of a head, 1^1, to revise the treaty. The question of Smyrna two specimens of which^are preserved in the British was compromised, the demilitarized zone in the museum. Amyzone appears as a diocese, suffragan Straits was reduced considerably, and a substantial of Stauropolis in all notices of the twelfth and arrangement of the financial clauses of the treaty thirteenth centuries, imder various forms of the was made. It is doubtful whether these proposals name. Several ancient bishops of this see are will stand, as hostilities have broken out between known: Philetus, who signed at the council of Turkey (q.v.) and Greece (q.v.). Ephesus (431): John, present at the Council of At present the country is in a bad condition Cnalcedon (451) ; and Andrew, present at the Coun- economically, as foreign interests have been con- cil of Contanstinople, imder tne Patriarch Menas fiscated and destroyed during the past five years. (536). Theophylact attended the second Council The resources of the country were placed at the of Nicaea (787), and in tha biography of St. Paul disposal of the military authorities, who have seized the Younger a certain Bishop of Amyzone is men- the crops and live stock at their discretion. The tioned among the benefactors of the monks, but population has suffered enormous losses; Moham- his name is not given. The diocese is mentioned medans have been drafted into the army whose in a judgment of Isaac Angelus (1185-95), and we casualties have been heavy; the Armenians have find an Act of the Patriarch, Manuel II (1244-45), neariy all been massacred, and of the other Chris- exempting the monks of St. Paul of Latros from tians nearly all suffered severely from deportation, the jurisSction of neighboring bishops, particularly forced labor, and Turkish cruelty. In the late years the Bishop of Amyzone, who is mentioned three of the European War there was an increased de- times. At this time the see bore a double title, mand from the Central Empires for Anatolian in addition to the name Amyzone it added that of products, and vigorous measures were taken to a neighboring locality, Coracia or (Iloracium. The stimulate production. The effect of this has been city cannothave survived long after the time at permanent and beneficial, a new market being which it is mentioned in the documents, and must opened up for Anatolian products. There are no have been destroyed by the Turkish invasion. The trustworthy statistics regarding the population of ruins of the ramparts of the fortress can be seen Anatolia.

at the summit of a hill on the eastern slope of For Catholic statistics see Asu Minor, Vicariatb

Mount Latros (t(>day Bech Parmak Dagh), above Apostouc op.

the i/^lage of Kafarlar in. the province of Symma. Anchialos, a titular see in the province of Hemi-

The Turlffl call the remains Mazyn Kalehsi, 1. e., ^^^^^ -^ Thrace, suffragan of Adrianople. The

fortress of Amyzone. ancient city of Anchialos originated in a little

If D10CE8B OF (Anaqninensis; cf. C. E., Greek colony situated in Thrace on the western