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of the order, died in 1917 and was succeeded by superiors who know the capacity and capabilities

Mother Stanislaus Kostka, the present commissary of each. Candidates must pass a six months time

general. The following are the principal changes of probation. This period is followed by two years

brought about by the revised code of canon law: novitiate, after the expiration of which time, the

The seven year period of the temporary vows has temporary vows for three years are pronounced,

been shortened to three years, and the indefinite At the end of the third year, perpetual profession

period for the office of the local Superiors has been is made. The education given by the Sisters of

changed to conform with the new code's require*. Notre Dame comprises the development of the

ment of three or at most six years. Owing to pupils' physical, mental, and moral powers, and a

existing conditions no report can be given of the thorougn knowledge of their Holy Faith. In

houses in £urope. The number of foundations in America and abroad the congregation makes it a

the United States and Canada is 362, thirteen being point to obtain State approval. The plan of

in Canada. The number of members is 4450. Be- studies strictly conforms to modern requirements, sides parochial schools, many of which have high The foundations at present number 1^. In Ger-

schools and commercial classes, the Sisters have many there are 66 affiliations; in Holland, 10;

two colleges, seven academies, twelve orphanages, Italy, 1 ; and in the United States, 63. The present

one day-nursery, one deaf-mute institute, one In- number of members of the order is 1569 professed

dian school. The work of the Sisters is confined Sisters, and 247 novices and postulants. Of these

exclusively to school children, including the care Europe has 964 professed, and 187 novices and pos-

of orphans under school age. tulants; America, 605 professed and 60 novices and

IV. Sisters of Notre Dame (Of Cleveland, Ohio, postulants. In Germany the Sisters are in charge

cf. C.E., XI-131d). — The second mother general, of 14 lyceums, 10 high schools, 2 normal schools.

Mother Mary Chrysostom, who in 1872 had sue- and 1 college; 10 boarding schools; 7 orphanages:

ceeded Mother Mary Anna, died in April, 1895. 9 homes for young women; 40 kindergartens, ana

She had safely guided the institute through the 7 domestic science schools. In the United States,

stormy days of the Kulturkampf. Sister Mary the Sisters are in charge of 54 parochial schools, 3

Cecihe was almost unanimously elected the third academies, 4 orphanages, 10 high schools, 1 home

mother general. In 1877 she had gone to America for young women. The total number of children

as the youngest of a band of 22 Sisters, served as under their charge in America in 1920 was 22,634.

mistress of boarders in Cleveland and Covington, „. -^ ,_ _ __ , # ^ ^^

and after her return to Europe in 1889 acted as y? ^o^?"j *^ Lac, UNiyBRSiTT of (cf. C. E '

first assistant to the mother general. During her p-:1^32a) had a registration for 1921 of 1490 students

able administration the rule was definitely ap- ^Sj"^^ ^ follows: College of Arts and Letters

proved bv Leo XIII in 1900. In 1921 revisions f^^; Col ege of Science 115; Coltece of Enpee™^^

were made in the constitution, conformable to the ^44; College of Commerce 468- College of Law 153;

new Code of Canon Law. The community prayer special students 19; sub-freshman year 39., The

book also underwent revision. About thirty new Vy^^oSJ^L ""T P,^^««^ 5 o^^ conaistmg of

foundations owe their existence to her, and since }i^^^7 bound volumes and 39,150 pamphlets and

1920 the order conducts a "Scuola Internazionale," Penodicds and a museum containing art, geologic^

a home for young girls in Turin/ Italy^ and a ^ooloj^icid, botanical. and numwmaUcc^^^^

r^ j«*:^^ :^ T> ""* :? uZ: '" -A^t—LiV*!:^' ?ttii«" botamcal Collection mcludes the herbaria of the late

V Vn F^Vn«J; 'iQit n7nnrr.H fh. fn^.I addition to the "Avc ivf aria" Other pubUcations of'thc

Tnc, ^f ^ofr^^'ni^^^^^ ?^a^o^t ^^ ?J^fl Um* Verity aie: "Thc Scholastic" (w^kly), "Thc Mid-

iing of Notre Dame Academy, provmcial j^^ Natiralist" (monthly); and two stddent publi-

ler-house and novitiate at Ansel Road and ^of,-^„„ "t-k-. T„«llo^'wJ^;.*kl„^. <,.,^ "Tk^ tC.^,^"

nitely. opening

Ro^^kefeterpS: al^dr'o^TM^. -«J-{."TheJuggler"(monthly);and"TheDonH.- 1918, Sister Mary Evarista succeeded Sister Mary Louise as provincial of the American Province. In Kottlxigliam, Diocese op (Nottinghamensis ; cf. July, 1921, Mother General Mary Cecilie made her C. E., XI— 133a), one of the twelve original English fourth visit to the American Province. In 1910 dioceses, is under the administration of Rt. Rev. occurred the death of Sister M. Modesta, sister of Thomas Dunn, who was bom in London, ^ July, the deceased Bishop Toebbe of Covington. She 1870, and ordained in 1893, after which he acted had been Superior of the American Province and as chaplain of the Visitation at Harrow, and was later, until her death, served as first assistant to later made chancellor of Westminster in 1902. In the mother general in the mother-house in Ger- 1906 he was made rector of Staines and under three many. During the following years the order lost successive Popes he was appointed a Private Cham- Sisters M. Bemarda, M. Hildegardis, M. Renilde, berlain, in 1895, 1903 and 1914. He was appointed M. Josepha, and M. Alfons, all pioneer members. Bishop of Nottingham 3 January, 1916, and con- The government of the congregation is in the secrated 25 February, succeeding Rt. Riev. Bishop hands of a superior general, elected for life by an Brindle who had filled this see from 1901 until his electoral body. The superior general resides in the transfer to the see of.Tecape in 1915. In 1918 the mother-house, and has a general council, which Xavierian Brothers established their noviciate and consists of at least eight members. Besides the house of preliminary studies at Deeping, St. James, mother general, it comprises her three assistants, Lincolnshire, thus establishing themselves for the the novice mistress, and the other members elected first time in the diocese of Nottingham. The Fran- by the council. The provincial superiors are elected ciscans (Capuchin, O.S.F.C.) also became estab- by the superior general after approval and vote of lished in the diocese for the first time the follow- the general council. They, too, have a special ing year, when they transferred their Seraphic council, approved by the superior general. The College from Cowley, Oxford, to Panton Hall, superiors of the affiliated houses are appointed by Wragby Lincolnshire, where it is now known as the superior general at the suggestion of the pro- St. Lawrence's Franciscan College, vincials and with the consent of the general coun- The religious orders establ£hed here include cil. There is no distinction between choir and lay men, Benedictines, Cistercians, Dominicans, Capu- Sisters. The work of the order is allotted by chins, Institute of Charity, Jesuits, Premonstaten-