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rection, Tmartwychwstanvki; (6) Sisters of Immacu- Ratti, since elevated to the papacy, was sent by Pope

late Conception, Niepokalanvis; (7) Sisters of St. Benedict XV as Apostolic Visitor to Poland, which

Mary's Servants (Scovulae), Sluzscniczvis; (8) Sis- was then nominally free but under German occupa-

ters of St. Mary's Family, Rodzina Maryi; (9) Sis- tion. After tlie republic was proclaimed, an Apostolic

ters of St. Mary a Misericordia, Serafitki; (10) Nunciatureof the second class was erected in roland,

^ters of Brother Albert, Albertynki. In general: with Mgr. Ratti as Nuncio. He was appointed titular

regular priests, 56: nuns, 30; religious sisters, 28, and archbishop of Lepanto 3 July, 1919, and was conse-

many Sisters of Uharity especially of St. Vincent de crated in the cathedral of Warsaw the following

Paul. Hospitals, asylums and other humanitarian October in the presence of the Primate and many of

institutions number 38; 15 of which are under the the bishops of Poland, President Pilsudski, Premier

care of Sisters of Charity. There are also several hid- Paderewski and other civil representatives. In 1921

den Congregations of Men and Women, with their Mgr. Ratti was made Archbishop of Milan and was

rules approved by Rome; they were especially needed succeeded as Nuncio by Mgr. Lauren ti Lauri, titular

when Poland was under Russian government and archbishop of Ephesus, who was formerly nuncio to

similar religious institutions were by law either pro- Peru. M. Wladislas Skrzynski is the Minister Pleni-

hibited, persecuted or totally suppressed. They potentiary and Envoy Extraordinary of Poland to the

dress like the seculars, and are working in the city. Holy See, having presented his letters of credit 15

in provinces and villages, exercising their beneficial October, 1921. The newly-created Polish cardinals

influence and apostleship. Several hidden mission- Card. Dalbor, Primate of Poland and Card. Kakow-

aries, especially Jesuit Fathers, worked among the ski. Archbishop of Warsaw, created 15 December.

Uniates. 1919. brought with them from Rome the symbolical

The (general meetings of the Polish episcopate are candle of St. Josaphat. On the day of the canoniza- productive of much good for the Church. Through tion of St. Josaphat, 27 June, 1867^ Pius IX returned them unitv of action, the organization of the new and to the alunmi of the Polish College m Rome, the bees- restored dioceses and a general strengthening of the wax candle given him in accordance with a long-estab- Catholic movement are effected. Tney are alwavs lished custom, telling them to preserve it in the col- held under the guidance of the Papal Nimcio. The lege until they could li^ht it in a free and independent first was held in Warsaw, 11 March, 19l7, because of Poland. At the public allocution to the new Car- the hundred years' jubilee of the Archdiocese, Poland dinals, Benedict aV expressed his conviction that the being yet under German occupation. The second in time had now come for the fulfillment of the will of Warsaw, 10 December, 1918, and the third, 20 Janu- his predecessor, and the candle was solemnly given ary, 1919, before the elections to the Constitutional to tne Cardinals by the rector of the Polish College. Diet, when a general episcopal letter to the nation With great ceremony it was placed in the cathedral of and Polish people was issued. The fourth in Warsaw, Warsaw and during the Pontifical Mass, President because of different social, ecclesiastical and educa- Pilsudski was invested to light it. The sermon on this tional questions, 13 March, 1919. The fifth in Gniez- occasion was preached by Mgr. Pelczar, who had wit- no, 27 August, 1919, at the tomb of St. Wojciech, nessed the ceremony on flie canonization of St. Archbishop and Martyr, in thanksgiving to God for Josaphat.

the restitution of a united and independent Poland, Religious freedom also brought to Poland many

and asking the benediction of the Almightv that it non-CathoUc creeds and sects. There are now in

may prosper as it did at the time of St. Wojciech. Warsaw Methodists, Quakers, Baptists, Bible

The sixth was held at Warsaw at the consecration of Students and various societies from North America,

Mgr. Ratti. The seventh on 10 January, 1920, on notably the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A., which

the occasion of the return of the newly-created Car- at first under humanitarian pretenses and then openlv

dinals to Poland and the bringing of the symbolical spread their heretical doctrines. They meet with

St. Josaphat's Candle. The eighth was held at temporary success owing to the high purchasing

Oxenstocnowa. at the shrine of Our Lady and Queen power of foreign money, and are helped by the native

of Poland, in the very heart of Catholic Poland. The Protestants and Jews. There are some native inde-

national vows were renewed, their fulfillment prom- pendent churches, such as the Marianites, but they

ised and Holy Virgin again proclaimed as Oueen of have few adherents.

Poland, and asked to save Poland from the Bolsheviki, Amongst the Polish religious and clergy recently

as she has saved the nation in similar danger in 1655. deceased was Brother Albert (Adam Chiinwelowski) ,

The meeting in Cracow, 28 May-3 June, 1921, at former artist, who devoted hiis life to work amongst

the tomb of St. Stanislaw^ Bishop and Martyr, ended the most wretehed and destitute. He founded a

with the solemn and public consecration of the whole congregation known as Brother Albert's Brothers and

Polish nation to the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, read Sisters, and died a holy death in Cracow , 25 December ,

in public procession by Mgr. Dalbor, Primate of 1915. Rev. I. Radziszewski, d. 22 February, 1922,

Poland. was founder and rector of the Catholic University at

After the resurrection of Poland two new dioceses Lublin, which is under the care of the Polish episcopate

were erected as suffragans to the Metropolitan See of and of great benefit to Catholic youth. During the

Waiww, one in Podlachia with its episcopal rraidence Bolshevist invasion Father Skorupka, twenty-

atSiedlce, which WM formerly suppressed by the Rus- ^^^^ ^j^j chaplain of the Eighth Division of

sutn Government, the second formed from the Arch- T-.*«,>*i.. «,«o i,;ii«ri «« k« ^«u;^ u;^^^rv^^^* ^^^a^,.

diocese of Warsaw and comprismg the industrial dis- J^^ntry, was kiUed as he rail ed his regiment under

tricte of Poland. Ite episcopal residence is in Lodz. ^"?fi« machine gun-fire, to attack ^e enemy, m the

The proposed erection of a theological faculty at the decisive battle of the invasion. His heroism was

University of Warsaw will have an immense influence officially recognized by the General Staff,

on the education of the clergy of the archdiocese. _ ,. . r\,^^««« ^- /'i>^,,^.o««>«^tcTo. «f

In fulfiUment of a promise mkde 3 May, 1791, just ^ ^S,"<^«Vt o?o?^ -^ .Z (Policastrensis; cf.,

before the partition of Poland and in thanksgiving for C. E., XII— 212b), m the I^vmce of Catanzaro,

the restoration of liberty and unity, the Diet voted to Southern Italy, suffragan of balemo. The present

erect a church in Warsaw in honor of Divine Provi- bishop is Rt. Rev. Giovanni Vescia, b. 1848, elected

dence. In December, 1921, the first Polish Mission- 1899. The Catholic population of the diocese is