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1871; De Ganay, '^Les Bienheureuses Dominicaines/' it will be remembered, have a ritual of their own. Paris, 1913; chapter on "The Third Order" by Dix, But, owing to the Motu Proprio of Pius X, "Abhinc in The English Dominican Province," London, duos annos," 23 October, 1013. their Divine Office 1921). The First Order substituted the monastic has been rendered more like tnat of the present scapular for the rochet of canons. Roman Breviary. By the Motu Proprio of Benedict

A general chapter of the order promulgates new XV, "Alloquentes proxime," 25 March, ,1917, the laws, but to become a part of the constitutions they Congregation of the Index, of which a Dominican was must be accepted by three consecutive chapters, always the secretary, has been suppressed. General chapters are two fold: (a) general chapters of Among the works on preaching written by Domini- provincials; and (b) general chapters of dennitors. cans, in the first two centuries of their existence, two Their periods of convocation have not always been deserve special mention. They are "De eruditione the same. At times, owing to various causes, they prsedicatorum" (On the instruction of Preachers) by have been held rather irregularlv. But they are now Blessed Humbert of Romans (d. 1277), published the convoked alternately every three years, and are last time in "De vita regulari Beati Humberti de largely intended as a counterbalance of power. The Romanis," Rome, 1888-89; and John Bromyard's general chapter of provincials is composed of the (d. 1420), well-known and often-published "Summa master ^neral and the actual provincials of the prsedicantium," which treats of all preaching matter order. Each province also elects a delegate or m alphabetical order (Qu^tif-Echard, "Scriptores companion (sociua) to accompany its provincial to Ordinis Pnedicatorum." I, 700). St. Vincent Ferrer the chapter and to act in hisstead mease of necessitv. (d. 1419) was one 01 the most extraordinary and The general chapter of definitors is formed by the effective preachers as well of the Church as of the master general and the definitors elected in their order. Father Thomas Nicholas Burke (d. 1882), respective provinces to constitute this legislative one of the greatest pulpit orators of the English- body. Eacn province chooses one such representa- speaking world, did some of his best work in the tive. Another delegate or companion, elected at the United States. Father Vincent J. Lombardo (d. same time, accompanies the dennitor to the chapter, 1909), Bona venture KioIe (d. 1914), and Charles H. and takes his place should this become necessary. McKenna (d. 1917) were among the most noted When a master general is to be elected, both the modem preachers respectively in Italy, Germany, provincials and their companions and the definitors and the United States.

and their associates attend the elective chapter. In En^and the studium generate of the order at All these (except the delegates who accompany Cambridge, founded in the b^inning of the fourteenth the provincials), together with the ex-masters general century, was an active rival of that at Oxford. The and the procurator general, have a voice in the seleo- Friars Preachers influenced English society, from the tion of tne order's new head. The suffrage is given highest to the lowest ranks, to a remarkable extent, in secret. Similarly, the provincial chapters 01 the Among those who took a conspicuous part in the order (that is, those convened in the various provinces) public affairs of itie coimtry were John Darlington are held biennially. They are also twofold: (a) the (d. 1284), Archbishop of. Dublin and a trusted mem- elective chapter; and (b) the intermediate chapter ber of the government under Henry III; William (congregalio intermedia) . Bv the former the provincial Hotham (d. 1296) , Archbishop of Dublin and favorite is elected, together with the definitor and the two minister of Edward I; Thomas Rushook (d. 1393). delegates spoken of above. It is made up of the Bishop of Chichester and confessor and protector of masters in theology, ex-provincials and preachers Richard II; and John Gilbert (d. 1397), Bishop of general belonging to the province, the priors and one Hereford and twice lord treasurer of England (Palmer,

in his selection. The last general chapter (Corias, chapter on "In Public Life," by Gumbley, in "The

Spain, 1920) gave representation to the houses that Enuish Dominican Ftovince, London, 1921). In

are not convents. These institutions are arranged in Ireland, the order's influence was rather through

groupS; and each group sends one or more dele^tes the people than throu^ those in public authority;

according to the number of Fathers who constitute but it was none the less profound. To mention no

it. That each such cluster may be more truly re- others, David MacKelly (1253), Archbishop of

presented, only its members may vote for or be elected Cashel and the first Irish Friar Preacher to wear the

its delegates. The intermediate chapter is assembled mitre in his native land; Ross MacGeoghegan (d.

two years after the election of the provincial, whose 1641), Bishop of Kildare; Terence Albert O'Brien

term of ofiSce is four years. It is composed of the (d. 1651), the martyr bishop of Emly: Dominic

provincial and those just mentioned, except the Burke (d. 1704), Bishop of Elphin; Thomas De

preachers general and the several conventual and Burgo or Burke (d. 1776), noted historian and

group delegates. The laws regulating the con- Bishop of Ossory: John Thomas Troy (d. 1823),

vocation, etc., of chapters, whether general or pro- Archbishop of Dublin and founder of Maynooth

vinciaL are given in the constitutions under the title College, were sunong the leading lights of the Irish

"De Capitmo Generali and "De Capitulo Pro- episcopacy. Of the 368 Irish martyrs now proposed

vinciaii.' for beatification 101 belonged to the Order of St.

The spirit of the order has ever been quite demo- Dominic (De Jond^e, "Bielgium Dominicanum,"

cratic. Nearly all its officials and representatives Brussels, 1719; De Burao, "Hibemia Dominicana,"

are chosen by secret suffrage. However, the spirit (Ik>logne. 1762; "The flibemian Magazine," April

of the new Code of Canon Law, though its legislation 1864: Brennan. "Lives of the Irish Martyrs and

did not change the institute's law in this matter, led Con/essors," New York, 1879; O'Heyne, "The

the chapter of Corias (1920) to limit the number of Irish Dominicans of the Seventeenth Century,"

ballots to seven for ail elections. The new Code translated and edited by Coleman, Dundaik, 19(X2;

of Canon Law also took the Friars Preachers out of Nolan, "The Irish Dominicans in Rome," 1813;

those religious orders known as mendicants in the Maclnemy, op. cU.: "Acta Capitulorum Ordinis

strict sense. The chapter of Corias, however, au- Preedicatorum, Vol. VII, edited by Reichert,

thorized the master general to petition the Holy See Rome, 1902* "Analecta Ordinis Preedicatorum,"

for a restoration of tne institute to its time-honored February and December, 1915). The Friars Preachers,

place among the mendicant orders. The Dominicans, in a brotherly spirit and a desire to promote faith ana