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with solemn or simple vows, withdrawn from the governing the approbation of religious congregations;

jurisdiction of the local ordinary; a religious con^^ cf. C. E. XII — ^758).

gjation, or simply a congregation, is a society with The approval of the Holy See and the local ordi-

simple vows only^ whether perpetual or temporary, nary's written consent are required for the erection

A pontificial religion or institute (rdioio juris panU- of an exempt religious house, whether fully estab-

ficii) is a religious organization which has received lished or not, or of a monastery of nuns (moniales),

approbation or at least a commendatory decree or of any religious house in a terhtory subject to

(tatuiia decretum) from the Hol^ See; a diocesan the Congregation of Propaganda; in all other cases

institute is a religious orffanization erected by an the ordmary's leave suffices. Permission to erect a

ordinary and as yet without the commendatory new house authorizes clerical religious to have a

decree. A religious organization is termed clerical if church or public oratory annexed to the house,

its members generally receive the priesthood; other- though before building it in a specified place they

wise it is called lay. A religious house is the residence must obtain the ordinary's leave, and to exercise

of any religious organization; a regular house is one their sacred ministry within the limits of the law;

belonging to an order; an established house (domua it also authorizes both clerical and lay religious to

formata) is a religious house in which there are at carry on the pious works proper to them, unless they

least six professed religious, of whom, if the institute are restricted by the terms of the permit. To erect

is clerical, four must be priests. A province is a union and open schools, hospitals or other such building

of several religious houses belonging to one religious apart from a religious house, even exempt, it is

oi:^nization and under the same superior. sufficient but necessary to get the ordinary's leave in

lleligious are those who have made vows in any writing; formerly these institutions needed the same

religious organization; religious with simple vows are authorisation as the religious house. To convert a

professed members of a congregation; regulars are religious house to other purposes permission must be

professed members of an order; sisters (sorores) are obtained from the same authorities as authorized its

women religious with simple vows; nuns {maniales) erection, unless the change is merel}r a matter of

are women religious with solemn vows, or if the very internal discipline and in accordance with the laws of

nature of things or the context does not imply other- the foundation. A religious house, whether fully

wise, women religious whose vows by*rule should be established or not, belonging to an exempt religion,

solemn, but which for certain localities have been cannot be suppressed without leave of the Holy See;

declared simple bv the Holy See. By higher superiors if it belongs to a non-exempt pontifical congregation,

are meant tne abbot primate, abbot superiors of a it can be suppressed by the general, with the local

monastic congregation, abbots of monasteries aui ordinary's consent; those belonging to a diocesan

um, even if the monastery belongs to a monastic con^gation can be suppressed by the mere au-

congregation, the general or supreme ruler of a thority of the local orainary, after hearing the

religious society, the provincial superiors, their vicars moderator of the congregation, unless it is the only

and all others having the same jurisdiction as pro- house of the institute, but an appeal with suspensive

vincials. effect may always be made to tne Holy See.

Bishops, but not vicars capitular or vicars general. Superiors. — Exempt clerical superiors have ec- can erect religious congregations; however, they clesiastical jurisdiction over their subjects in both must neither do so nor forbid their erection, without the internal and external fora. However, the abbot consulting the Holy See; moreover, where there is primate or abbot superior of a monastic cong^regation question of tertiaries living a common life, they must does not enjoy all the power and jurisdiction con- be aggregated by the supreme ruler of the first order, ferred by the common law on higher superiors, but A diocesan congregation, even though it has spread is limited in accordance with the constitutions and through severiu dioceses, remains diocesan and with special papal decrees.

subject to the various local ordinaries until it obtains Higner superiors should hold office tempcrarily, the papal approbation or commendatory decree, unless the constitutions provide otherwise minor The name or nabit of a constituted religious organiza- local superiors must not be appointed for more than tion ma^ not be assumed either by those not belong- three vears, though they may be reappointed for a ing to it or by a new religious body. No legally second term, if the constitutions so permit, but not established religious organization, even if it is dio- for a third consecutive term in the same house, cesan and has only one house, can henceforth be What is here said of minor local superiors applies to suppressed except by consent of the Holy See, to superiors and directors of schools, hospitals, and other which in case of suppression the disposal of the pious houses, if they are superiors of religious, having property is reserved, due respect, however, being power over other religious even in inatters of religious shown for the wishes of the donors or benefactors of discipline. Superiors are to reside in their own the organization. It is the exclusive prerogative of house and not to leave it, except as permitted by the the Holy See to divide, unite or modify provinces constitutions. All superiors must see that their of a pontifical order or congregation or to found or subjects are informed about papal decrees relating to suppress new provinces thereof, or to separate religious and that the decrees are observed. Ix)cal independent monasteries from a monastic congrega- superiors are to have the constitutions and certain tion and unite them to another. If a province is prescribed papal decrees read publicly on stated days suppr^sed the general chapter, or, if it is not in at least once a year; they must also cause to be cpven, session, the supreme ruler with his council, has the at least twice a month, an instruction in Christian right to dispose of its property, unless the const itu- doctrine, adapted to the capacity of the hearers, to tions pro viae otherwise, due regard being had for the the lay-brothers or lay sisters and the domestic claims of justice and the wishes of founders. A servants, and a pious exhortation to all the members diocesan religious congregation cannot establish a of the nouse, especially in non-clerical religious, house in another diocese without leave of the local Abbot primates, superiors of monastic congregations ordinaries both of the mother-house and of the other and generals of pontifical orders and congregations diocese; the first-named ordinary, however, is not to must transmit to the Holy See every fifth year refuse permission without grave cause. It tlie con- (formerly every three years), or oftener if the con- gregation exists in several dioceses none of its laws stitutions so provide, a report on the religious condi- may be changed without the consent of each of the tion of their order or congregation, signed by them- ordinaries into whose diocese it has been introduced, selves and their councils, and in case of congregn^ (N. B. The Acta, 1921, p. 313, gives the new rules tions of women, signed also by the ordinary of the