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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/649

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place of residenoe of the mother-general and her incurs no responsibility. Religious superiors are

council. In religion there must be no merely honorary warned not to run into debt, unless it is certain that

titles of offices, or dirties; however, those who their ordinary revenues are sufficient to pay the interest

have been higher superiors may retain their title, if and extinguish the debt by amortization within a

the constitutions of their religion so permit. reasonable time. It may be noted here that the Code

ADMimsTRATioN OP PROPERTY. — To iuvest or re- does not renew the prohibition contained in the invest monev the consent of the local ordinary must Instruction Inter ea" (1909), against erecting new be obtained Dy (a) mother superiors of nuns (monioZes) monasteries or houses or even irom enlarging or or of diocesan congregations, in all cases — formerly changing those alreadv built imless the necessary the ordinary's approbation was not required: if the funds were already in hand. Donations may not be monastery is suDject to a regular superior his per- made from the property of a house, province, con- mission also is needed: (b) mother superiors of gregation or order, except as alms or for another just pontifical congregations for the investment of dowries cause, and then only with the superior's leave and of professed religious: congregations approved by the according to the constitutions. Holy See were until the promulffation of the Code Studies. — ^Every clerical religious should have a completely exempt from episcopal jurisdiction in the scholasticate: common life must be followed therein, admmistration of their temporal property; (c) otherwise the students are ineligible for ordination, superioresses of houses belongmg to religious con- If the religion or province have no house of studies the gregations, if money has been given by will, or students are to be sent to the scholasticate of another otherwise, to be spent in the service of God; (d) any province or religion, or to the episcopal seminary, or a religious, even a regular, if the money has been given public Catholic athenaeum. Religious who study at for the benefit of a parish or mission. Important a distance from their own house must reside m a changes in regard to the alienation of property and place approved by the Holy See and not in private the contracting of debts were made by the Code, nouses. During their studies, scholastics must be To contract debts now amounting to more than under the special guidance of a spiritual father or 30,000 francs ($6000 or £1200) or to alienate property prefect, who has the qualifications prescribed in exceeding that sum the consent {beneplacUvm) of the canon law for masters of novices; they must be granted Holy See is required; for smaller amounts it is suffi- ample time for study and the general, or in special cient but necessary to have the written permission of cases other superiors, can exempt students, if neces- the superior according to the constitutions of each sary, from certain community auties, such as choir, organization, with the consent of his chapter or especially at night. Religious are to devote at least council given by secret ballot; but nuns or sister? two years to the study ofphilosophy and foiur years of diocesan institutes must have the written consent to theology according to the method, principles and of the local ordinary, and of the regular superior if doctrines of St. Thomas Aquinas. After completing the nuns are subject to a regular superior. Formerly their studies they are to be examined annually for the consent of the Holy See was required to alienate five years by some of the learned members of the property valued over $250 or £50, or to contract order or institute. In every fully established house debts exceeding $2000 or £400, the consent of the there must be at least once a month a discussion of a bishop being unnecessary where smaller values were case of moral theology or Utiurgyj at which all mem- involved. In a petition for leave to contract debts bers of the house who are studymg or have studied or obligations it is necessary to set forth all the other theolo^ must attend, unless the constitutions provide debts or obligations incurred to date by the moral otherwise.

person, order or congregation, province, or house; Divine Office. — In accord with the hitherto

otherwise the permission if granted would be invalids commonly accepted view^ the Code prescribes that

In all monasteries of nuns (monialea) , even exempt, choral recitation of the Qfiice is obligatory in houses in

an accounting must be made once a year, or of tener , which there are at least four religious or even less, if the

if the constitutions so provide, by the reverend mother constitutions so prescribe ^ who are bound to choir

to the local ordinary, and to the regular superior also, and who are not lawfully impeded, if the monastery is subject to one. Should the ac- Correspondence. — All religious, male or female,

counting l>e unsatisfactory the ordinary can apply can freely send letters, exempt from all inspection,

suitable remedies, and should circumstances demand to the Holy See or its legate m the country, to their

it may even remove the oeconomus and other ad- cardinal protector^ to their higher superiors, and to

ministrator, if the monastery is subject to a regular the superior of their own house, if absent, to the local

superior the ordinary should notify him in the first ordinary to whom they are subject, ana, in case of

instance and if he neglects to act the ordinanr may nuns under the jurisdiction of regulars, to the higher

then take measures to correct the evil. In all other superiors of the order; furthermore, the religious can

female religious orders or congregations, an account- receive from all of these letters which nobody has the

ing is to be made to the local ordinary during visita- right to inspect. Formerly communication to or

tion, or oftener, if he judges it necessary, concerning from the local superiors and papal lei»tes were not

the administration of the dowry investments. The guaranteed privileged, while correspondenoe with the

local ordinary, moreover, is entitled to be informed of cardinal was only doubtfully privileged, the economic condition of houses of diocesan insti- Obligations and Privileges. — The obligations

tutes. and of the administration of funds and legacies of clerics are as a rule binding on relisious: they must

for tne welfare of a parish or mission to be spent make an annual retreat, attend daily Mass if possible,

locally in the service of God. meditate daily and peitorm the works and devotions

If an institute, province, or house, contracts debts prescribed by their rules; they are to ^o to confession

or obligations even with the superioi's leave, it incurs weekly and receive Holy Commumon frequently^

the responsibihty; if a regulai mcuis obligatioas with even daily; but provisions in their rules regarding the

his superior's consent, the responsibility devolves on reception of the sacraments on certain days nave

the mor^ person whose superior granted permission; only a directive force. On the other hand all religious»

a religious of a congregation with simple vows who even lay religious and novices, enjoy the clerical

contracts debts is responsible, unless he was acting privileges of the canon, the forum, immunity and

on behalf of the congregation with the superior's competence. In certain cases the ordinary is au-

leave. However, if the religious contracts without his thorized to interfere with exempt religious. Not to

superior's leave hia institute, province, or house mention the election of superioresses, and the ad-