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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/650

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RELIGIOUS 634 BEUOIOUS

ministration of convent property, he may punish a of his institute. A^ain, a religious might obtain an regular for a fault committed outside of his house, indult of secularization; in virtue of such an indult, if the regular superior, after beine informed, fails to the reli^ous is entirely free from his vows and rule, do so; he must notify the Holy See about abuses in but one in major orders remains bound by the obliga- exempt houses if the regular superior, after being tions annexed to them. Those who have made only warned, takes no steps to reform conditions; and temporary vows are quite free to leave when the term finally he is bound to give special attention to houses of their vows has expired; their institute, too, might notfully established, to see that no abuse creeps in and dismiss them at that time, for a just and reasonable in case of necessity he can apply provisional remedies, cause, but not on the score of ill-health, unless the In the case of non-exempt mstitutes approved by the religious had fraudulently hidden or dissimulated the Holy See^ the ordinary cannot make any change in illness before his first profession. These methods of the constitutions, nor mquire into the administration changing one's condition are lawfulj on the other hand of property except as stated above, nor interfere with an attempt to abandon religious life by apostasy or the internal government and discipline, except as by flight would be unlawful. An apostate from re- authorized by the canons, yet in lay institutes he may li^on is one who having made perpetual vows leaves inquire regarding religious discipline, morality, his religious house unlawfully with the intention of the law of enclosure, the reception of the sacraments, not returning or who to withdraw himself from and provide a remedy for abuses, if the superior on religious obedience, does not return after he has left being notified does not do so. but in matters of the house with permission. This intention is legally grave import must notify the Holy See about his presumed when the religious does not return or notify action. Any indult panted legitimately by the nis superior within a month of his int«ntion to return, local ordinary, dispensing from an obligation of the Apostates and fugitives remain bound by their vows common law, avails likewise for all religious living and must return at once; their superiors should en- in the diocese, as far as their vows and constitutions deavor to have them come back; if they return peni- allow . tently they are to be received; in the case of an apostate

CoLLEcnoN OF Alms. — Regulars belonging to or fugitive nun the local ordinary is to pursue the mendicant orders strictly so-called (not, however, matter prudently, while the regular superior is to Dominicans and others who are loosely termed act if the nun belongs to an exempt monastery, mendicants) may collect alms in the diocese where Dismissal. — There are three crimes for which their house is situated with the sole authorization of a religious is ipso facto dismissed from reh^ous their superior; outside of the diocese, however, they life: public apostacy from Catholicism; flight with a require the written consent of the ordinary of the place person of ^he opposite sex; and attempted marriage, in which they would collect. All other religious of even so-called civil marriage. For the canonical pontifical congregations are forbidden to collect alms, dismissal of religious bound by temporary vows there unless they have a special indult, in which case, must be grave reasons, such as the absence of the however, they need the written consent of the local religious spirit to a degree causing scandal, when ordinary, if the indult does not excuse them from admonition and penance have failed to reform him. obtaining it; while members of diocesan congregations If the religious belongs to a pontifical order or con- require the written consent of their own local or- gregation the diBmiBsal is effected by the general with dinary and of the ordinary of the place of collection, the consent of his council, obtained by secret ballot. The local ordinary must not grant leave to collect or in the case of nuns (monialea) by the local ordinary to the religious just mentioned except in case of real and the regular superior, if any, but they may act necessity, which cannot be met in any other way; if a only after the superioress with her council have stated sufficiently large collection can be made in the dis- in writing. To dismiss any professed religious, the trict in which the religious live he must not permit religious must have been guilty of a serious fault or them to collect outside of it. have lost the religious spirit to such a degree that

Leaving an Institute. — No religious can pass to neither admonition nor penance has been able to

another, even a stricter, institute, or from one in- effect an amendment of life. If the vows are tern-

dependent monastery to another, without leave of porary and the party belongs to a pontifical institute

the Holy See. When anyone is authorized to make the superior general and his council effect the dismissal:

such a chan^ he has to make his novitate again in in the case of a nun (monialia), the local ordinary and

the new institute; during this time he is boima by his regular superior, if any, dismiss at the written request

vows (by the vow of obedience to his new superior of the superioress and her council, finally, a diocesan

and his master of novices), but his other religious sister would be dismissed by the local ordinary with

rights and obligations are suspended. On the com- the knowledge and acquiescence of her superioress,

pletion of his novitate he is to be admitted to perpetual In all these cases the religious must be notified of

profession or else he must return to his former in- the accusations; he may reply and his answer must

stitute. If the vows in the first institute were solemn form part of the records of the case. He may appeal

and those in the second simple, the religious who has to the Holy See against the dismissal, which, pending

been transferred is bound henceforth only by simple the answer^ remains ineffective. If finally dismissed,

vows, unless the Apostolic indult expressly proviaes the party is ipso facto releasee! from all his vows of

for the contrary. Religious life on the other hand religion.

may be entirely abandoned, either temporarily or When the vows are perpetual: if the religious be- perpetually. For good reasons a religious might longs to a non-exempt clerical or lay institute of men, obtain an indult of exclaustration (permission to and having been gmlty of three serious offences, has reside outside of a reli^ous house) from the local failed to amend after being admonished twice, the ordinary if his institute is diocesan, or in any other general and his council, if they favor dismissal, refer case from the Holy See. In virtue of such an indult the case to the local ordinary for action, when the the religious remains bound by his vows and other institute is diocesan; or they issue the decree them- obhgations of his profession compatible with his selves if the institute is pontifical, though in this case new condition, but he may not wear the religious dress; the decree to be effective must be approved by the while he is thus away from the institute he has no Holy See. To dismiss a nun or sister, there must be voice in its affairs, though he enjoys its privileges, grave external reasons combined with hopeless in- and is bound by the vow of obedience to the ordinary corrigibility; if the religious is a diocesan sister she of the diocese in which he resides, not to the superior can be dismissed by her local ordinary; if she is a nun.