BRSTIA 638 &HODE ISLAND
spring aod early summer with the details of making of $168,675|000» and an output to the value of
Fox Hill Manor ready for retreats. The house had $747,323,000. Cotton spinning and dyeing are the
to be largely refurnished and running repairs on a principal industries, also the manufacture of rubber
large scale were necessary. It was decided to and elastic goods. The State has deposits of graphite,
recnristen it as Mount Manresa" and to hold the lime, and building stone, the value of tne stone
first retreat therein beginning on September 8th — a quarried in 1917 oeing $518,785; of other minerals,
most appropriate date. Some idea of the obstacles $198,338.
to be overcome may be cleaned from the fact that AgricuUure — ^The general trend of agriculture is
the last of the beds and tne chairs arrived and were revealed in the latest agricultural census (1920),
placed in position at 5 p.m. on that da}^. At 7 p.m. which shows a decrease in the number of farms from
on September 8th, however, the provincial of the 5292 in 1910 to 4083 in 1920. The farmland area is
Society of Jesus. Father Joseph Hanselmann, S. J., 331,600 acres, of which 132,855 is in improved land,
presided in the aining room wnere some seventy men The value of all farm property is $33,636,766; of the
were assembled for the first retreat and at 8:30 p.m. livestock^ $4,840,279; of the crops, $5,340,000.
Father Shealy gave the "Points" in the chapel. The du^ct foreign commerce is still small, the
An important feature of the retreat work of exports in 1919 w^ere valued at $426,741; the imports,
Mount Manrcsa has been the Extension Retreats $5,456,800. The total assets of the bajiks and trust
given by Father Shealy each year at Philadelphia, companies in June^ 1919, were $356,030,000. Tlie
Ogdensburg and other centres. These retreats nave State bonded debt m January, 1921, was $9,200,082,
b^n largely attended. The movement begun so with a sinking fund of $1,397,428; the assessed value
successfully in New York is spreading rapidly of real property, $600,000,000; of personal property,
throud^iout the United States, and special houses $390,000,000.
have been opened in Albany (N^. Y.), Boston, Chi- In 1919 the railroads of the State comprised 209
cagOj Philadelphia, St. Louis, St. Mary's (Kan.), miles of single track and 351 miles of electnc railway.
Syracuse (N. V.), and Trenton (N. J.), and other Reliqign. — ^The federal census of 1916 gives the
cities. The Passionist houses as a rule have accom- following statistics of religious denominations: modations for retreats for lawmen as well as priests.
The English Jesuits have six houses of retreat: at ^^y
Stamford Hill. Osterley, Roehampton, Romilev, St.
Asaph (Wales), and Bothwell (Scotland); while the
Irish Jesuits have one at Rathfarnham Castle, Dublin. p?otStMt EpUcopaiiana"
ShsBtlai Prefecture Apostolic of (Rjsthorum; Methodist EpisooiMtiians'.
cf. C. E., XIII— 18b). in the Canton of Orisons, CogBregationaIbt«
Switzerland, is bounded on the South by Lombardy, Fn» BaptiatB — on the West by the cantons of Tessin, Uri and Glarus, on the East by the Tyrol, and is entrusted to the
Capuchins. It reports (1920) a total oopulation of Value of property: Protestant Episcopalian
10,000 inhabitants of whom 6541 are Catholic; 3621 $1,775,430; Congregationalist $1,263,672: Baptist
Zwin^ans; 22 churches, with resident and 27 with $1,777,880; Unitarian $257,500; Universahst $380,-
non-resident priests, 22 Capuchins, 36 schools with 500; Free Baptist $35,000. For Catholic statistics
1116 pupils, and 1 orphanage with 12 inmates. The see Providencb, Diocesb op.
prefect apostolic is Rt. Rev. Giovanni Santmi, Education.— The laws ffoveming private and
O. S. F. C, b. in Rieti, 5 August, 1867, professed parochial schools are as follows: Parochial schools
8 December, 1890, missionary in Rhstia, 14 August, must maintain approved standards and are subject
1892; prefect apostolic of Rhcetia, 2 January, 1905, to inspection. The State Board of Education may
resigned in 1912, chaplain to the Austrian jprisoners visit, mspect, and examine private schools at pleasure,
of war in January, 1916, re-elected prefect apostolic The conditions for approval are: The term must be
of RhfiBtia, 13 September, 1918. He resides at Sagens substantially equal to that required by law. (2.)
(or Thiefen Kastell) . The instruction must be in English. (3.) Thorough
and efficient teaching must be given. (4.) A register
Rhode Island, (cf. C. E., XIII — 20a). — ^The area must be kept and reports furnished to school com-
of the State of Rhode Island is 1248 square miles, mittees and truant officers. The instruction in
In 1920 the population was 604,937, a gain of 11.4 private schools must be in the subjects taught in
percent since 1910. Of this, 97.5 per cent was public schools and in the English language. On
urban; 2.5 per cent was rural. The average number designated holidays no session of any scnool in the
of inhabitants to the square mile is 566.4 as against State shall be held.
508.5 in 1910. The largest cities are Providence, According to the U. S. Census )1920) there were
with a population of 237,595; Pawtucket 64,248: 173,404 children of school age and 108,817 attended
Woonsocket 43,496. According to the Federal school (62.8 per cent.)
Census (1920) the number of foreign bom in Rhode The number of pupils enrolled in the 2093 public
Island is as follows: bom in Italy 32.241; in Canada elementary schools in 1919 was 83,300; of teachers.
36,412; in England 25,782; in Ireland 22,253; in 2585; in the 163 high schools. 381 teachers and
Sweden 6542; m Scotland 5692; in Portugal 8624; 8756 pupils. The total expenditure on education
in Russia 8055; in Germany 3126; in Poland 8158; was $3,503,091. The number of school buildings is
this classification does not distinguish the Jews, who 509; tne valuation of school property $12,439,076.
are rapidly increasing, and who in 1918 numbered The parochial school children in tne State numbered
20,512. There were besides 593,980 whites, 10,036 18,481; the attendance of the children in tlie parochial
negroes^ 110 Indians and 225 Chinese. Of the schools and academies was 20,066 in 1918. These
population of 10 years of age and over (483,788), schools cost in 1919 $3.79 per month for each pupil,
there were 31,312 illiterates or 6.5 per cent. Of these Allowing ten months of the school year on the basis
the foreign bom numbered 171,032 (16.5 per cent), of that cost, the 18,481 parochial school children, in
Economic CoNDmoNS. — Manufactures. — In 1919 attending the public schools would have cost the
there were 2466 establishments (a gain of 12.6 per cent State $699,610. Open-air schools were established
since 1914), with a total capitalization of $589.- in 1912. In 1917 the maximum school age was
937,000; employing 155,547 workers with a payroll increased to sixteen years. In 1918 the national