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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/688

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"field" the army is divided into Territories (usually 19 slum posts and nurseries; 26 rescue homes and corresponding to countries), these bein^ subdivided maternity hospitals. The Army also dispenses char- in to Provinces J these again into Divisions. Each ity through Cnristmas dinners, distribution of toys, Division contains a certain number of corps, each finding temporary or permanent work for the unem- of the latter having its own Captain and Lieutenant, ployed, and distribution of coal and ice to the poor, the corps being the nearest Army equivalent to an TV. Criticism. — ^A discussion of the doctrines held ordinary denominational congregation. Officers by the Salvation Army is unnecessai^ here, since they usually give their full time to the work and receive are common also to Protestantism m genend, partly sufficient remuneration to support themselves; to liberal and partly to orthodox" sects. There £3 soldiers usually pursue their ordmary occupations little new in doctrine in the Army; its methods are during the day and in the evening devote themselves not entirely new; its work is to a considerable extent to the work of the Army. There are training schools new to Protestantism. So far as it performs the work or garrisons for officers, the course varying from 1 to to which it has assijped itself the Army deserves 3 years. credit. Many, chiefl}r Protestants, have attacked

II. History. — ^The Salvation Army was founded its methods, and the sincerity of its members. The by William Booth, who, bom an Anglican in England most serious char^ that can be brought against it, in 1829, later loined the Weslevan Methodists, however, is its mimmizinf; of dogma, of spiritual truth, becoming a local preacher when fifteen or sixteen of the concursus of God m the affairs of men through years old. His open-air preaching not being ac- the Sacraments and sacramentals, through the super- ceptable to the Wesle3rans, he joined the Methodist natural in general. The statement that the Army New Connexion and was ordained minister, only to performs work which no other sect can or will perform leave that denomination in 1861. He and his wife is fairly true; but the additional assertion that it then turned themselves exclusively to itinerant engages in work and remedies conditions with which evangelical work, intending at first not to found a not even the Catholic Church can cope is unfounded, new sect, but rather to send their converts to existing In the Catholic Church various religious orders organizations. In 1865, after having come in contact perform similar work without sacrificing anytJiing on with the slums of London, his ideas took more the rpligious or dogmatic side; rather are the latter definite shape, and he founded the East London intensified by such work. Prominent among these- Revival Society, chan^g the name later to East may be mentioned the Alexian Brothers, founded, London Christian Mission, and again to the Christian originally to combat the plague in the fifteenth cen- Mission. By 1878 the movement had spread; one tury, tibe various Hospitallera, the military orders, of Booth's co-workers in a seaport town was Imown the Mercedarians, the Alagdalens. the Sisters of the as the "captain," and he preparing a reception for Good Shepherd, especially devoted to the redemption his leader announced t^t the "General" was coining, of fallen women, the Little Sisters of the Poor, the The program spoke of the "Christian Mission" as a Sisters of Charity, while a t3rpical lay society is that ' 'volunteer army." This Booth changed to "Salvation of St. Vincent de Paul. An interesting conversion of Army," which accordingly in 1878 became the name a Salvationist to the Catholic Church is that (1897) of of the movement, its official and definitive acceptance Miss Susie Swift, Brigadier of the Army, head of the taking place in 1880. Auxiliary Lea^e of America and editor of "All the

Opposition to the movement and its general World" (Curtis, "Some Roads to Rome in America"),

methods, at first bitter, subsided after a few years. V. Thb Volunteers of America is the name of

In 1890, following out the development of his ideas an American off-shoot of the Salvation Army. In

on the relief of poverty,. uplift of the slum-dwellers, 1896 Ballington Booth, a son of the founder of the

reform of criminals, and similar points. Booth pub- Army, together with his wife, left the Army through

lished his "In Darkest England and the Way Ciut," dissatisfaction with the autocratic rule of the general,

ad^'ocating as remedies for those evils, city, farm. They formed a rival organization under the above

and over-sea colonies, homes for fallen women, titie, having, however, practically the same doctrines,

prisoners' aid work, and legal and financial associa- aims and methods as the Army. In organization the

tions to aid the poor. The scheme has been realized Volunteers are more democratic, the government of

to a considerable extent. William Booth died in the corporate society being vested in the '^Grand Field

1912 and was succeeded by his son, Bramwell Booth. Council," which dects eleven directors as financial

The Armv spread rapidly to countries outside of officers and trustees of all property . The commander- England, the inauguration in different countries in-chief or general is elected for a term of five years. being as follows: Scotland 1878; Ireland, the United More generally than is the case with the Salvation States, Australia 1880; France 1881; Canada. Swe- Army converts are urged to join the church ¥rith den, India, Switzerland 1882; South Africa, Ceylon, which they were previously connected, or some other New Zealand 1883; Germany 1886; Denmark, Italy, church of their cnoice. A distinctive feature of the Holland 1887; Norway 1888; South America (5 work of this sect is the Volunteer Prisoners' League, republics), Finland, Belgium 1889; West Indies 1892; which has for its object the salvaging and reformation Dutch East Indies 1894* Iceland, Japan 1895; Korea of persons sentenced to prison. In 1920 there were 1908; Burma 1914; Chma 1915; Russia 1917. reported in the United States, 97 churches or edifices,

III. Statistics. — In 1920 the Salvation Army was 307 ministers (officers, etc.), and 10,204 members, located in 70 countries and colonies; it numbered Tliey conduct one hospital, 19 homes for children 11,173 corps and outposts; it was in charge of 1276 and girls, and various homes for working girls, social institutions, 751 day schools; it Imd 18,321 There have been many other off-shoots or imitators officers and cadets, 71^419 local officers, 32,000 bands- of the Army. Major Nioore, one of General Booth's men; it issued 82 penodicals. first envoys to the United States, seceded in 1884

In the United States in 1920 an administrative and formed an organization which he called the Amer-

reorganization was effected, three territories being ican Salvation Army. Litigation over the name

created, instead of one as formerly. Miss Evangeline ensued between him and the parent organization.

Booth, daughter of the first general, remains, how- ending in 1913 when the dissenting bodv received

ever, in supreme charge of all the work in this coun- from the Salvation Army S4100 and adopted the

try. In 1920 there were 1036 corps and outposts; name of American Rescue Workers. The names of

3649 officers and cadets; 28,586 members; 52 hotels some of the others are: Gospel Army, Redeemer's

for men, 3 for women, 4 boarding houses for young Army^ Christian .^my. Christian Union Army,

women; 82 industrial homes; 3 children's homes; Amencan Volunteer Army, Christian VolunteeiSi