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SAlABtma 673 SAMOA ^

Christian Volunteer Association, American Salva- Music" (1893), "Sermons" (1892-1908). In 1906 he

tionists, Samaritan Association, Samaritan Christian held a Provincial Council at Salzburg, actively

Association. furthered the Catholic University Association and the

iJ!^AS!*'iS^^AiH:^'^^^S^f'y^J^f: St. CaecUia Society. His successor, Most Rev.

iZu^^U^'J^^ffdo]^'^^ a^X Balthasax lOiltner, b. at Goldegg, 12 Anril, 1840 d.

Way Out (New York. 1890) Booth-Tucksr. Life of Catherine o July, 1918, a learned and devout prelate who had

Boot* (New Y<yk, 1892); lD.ii,5o«aiftrf^^ been auxiliary bishop of Gurk (1910-1914), and was

Army m IA« UntUd StatM (New York, 1900): Fribdbbichs, w^^of aMi^rt^ \xtxA •aolrMio ;« «Ti *k«* ^^^iL^^^^ ^.u^

ThB Romance of the Salvatioi Army (London, 1907); From thi ^^ ^H\l ana^^ealOUS m all that concerned the

Jaw9 of Dtath (report of ftnti-euicide buresu); St. Albans, 1912); Welfare of the archdiocese. He was well known as an

Saltaiion Army Year Book (London, annual); Boora— (Bad- eminent jurist and architect. He built the prepara-

i.iNQrros)t The VMUfUeere of Amertea in JndependotUtXLyill — *^r\r aAmi*«%o«^r anA fk^ *^««;ok Ak.i-AkAo «4. T4.ii;«« 

(1896). 437. Attacxs ok thb Salvation iSiST Lamb, Th4 J?^ ^^"^5^ ^^^ r^ P^^^ churches at Itzhng,

Social Work of the Salvation Army (New York, 1909); Manson , Obemdorf , St. Andr&, was professor of theology at

Ii^^^'?f»^..'**^V°'^}^^'*"i*^^?T****°i^®^l'«Yv"'2?^***^-^' Salzburg and author of an advanced catechism for

(London. 1910); Huxlby, Evolution and Ethice and other Eaeaya labored mdefatlgably for the Spmtual and bodlly

CNew York. 1902); Idbm , Social Diaeaeee and Woree Remediea welfare of the soldiers. The present incumbent is

(London. 1891). r^r,^y^^r..r.r.^^a^^ ^^^ Most Rcv. Ignatius Rieder, b. at Grossarl, 1

Gerald Shauqhnbsst. February, 1859, professor of theology at Salzbu^,

-, , . . ,_ ^ . elected titular bishop of Sura and auxiliary bishop of

Salsbnrg, Archbiocesb of (Salisburgensis) , in Salzburg 2 Jan., 1911, succeeded Most Rev. Balthasar

Austria. It contains 290,0(X) Catholics, 2615 Kaltner, 10 March, 1919.

Protestants and 302 Jews; 187 parishes, 335 churches. During the war the clergy and laity worked with 8 monasteries and 2 Benedictine Abbeys (St. Peter great zecd and encouraged the soldiers by giving them at Salzburg and Michaelbeuren) for men, 2 monaster- spiritual and temporal comfort. Twenty-six priests les and 1 Benedictine abbey (Nonnberg, Salzburg) for were appointed field chaplains, 2 regulars were active women, with 1074 sisters, 18 deaconries and 2 in cholera hospitals, 2 in refugees' camps. 3 in military collegiate churches. The cleripr number 478 seculars hospitals. All the clergy contributed from 4 to and 172 regulars. The following orders for men and 7% of their incomes for war purposes, about 60,000 women are represented: Franciscans, Capuchins, kronen. War welfare committees were established, ServitM, Mission Fathers, Ursuhnes, Poor Clares, collections were taken up in churches, the prisoners Domimcan Sisters, Augustinian Sisters, Sisters of received spiritual aid and the wounded were cared for Charity, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity, Sisters of the in reserve hospitals. An asylum was founded for war Cross and School Sisters. The archdiocese has a orphans and good literature was distributed among cathedral chapter which has twelve members and the soldiers (central distribution bureau at Salzburg) . collegiate churches at Mattsee (1 provost and 9 Many rectories. Sisters' private schools and two sum- capitulars) and at Seekirchen (1 provost and 9 mer homes of the Ursulines were given over for hospital canons). An important change took place in the purposes, gifts and clothes were distributed to the archdiocese when in 1920 the diocese of Trent and solcCers at the front. Catholic Women's Associations in 1921 the diocese of Brixen were separated from the provided refreshments at the depots, the war loan Archdiocese of Salzburg and placed under the direct was promoted, church and private property was used juns^ction of the Holy See. In 1810 the University to further the war loan (several million kronen), the was diaM)lved but the theological faculty, with the soldiers graves were cared for, the Red Cross Associa- right of promotion remained and now consists of 8 tion was supported, the church bells were given over professors and 40 students. . ^ . ^^ ^^. ^ to the government, the St. Peter foundation cared The foUowing schools exist m the archdiocese: 1 for twenty wounded soldiers, and the missionaries archiepiscopal pnvate gymnasium (180 students), 1 at Lieferung and St. Rupert placed 100 beds at the state gymnasium (310 students, 4 gurls), 1 state disposal of the Government. oooereaUckme (9 years scientific course, 517 students) ,

1 realgymnagium for girls conducted by the Ursulines S6mar and Leyte, Diocese of. See Calbayog. (6 years scientific course, 87 students), 1 teachers'

training school in- charge of the Ursulines (165 Samoa; (cf. C. E., XIII — 421a), a group of

students), 1 reform recdgymnaaium (6 years scientific islands in the Western Pacific Ocean, formerly

course, 12 teachers), 1 high school, 2 training schools, belonging to the United States and Germany. On

180 elementary schools, 1 industrial school, 2 mis- 29 August, 1914, the western islands of the

sionary schools. These schools are supported by the group (Savaii, Upolu, Apolima, Manono), held by

Government. There are also in the archdiocese 3 Uermany, were occupied by a force of New Zea-

homes^ 3 asylums^ 58 hospitals, 3 refujges, 24 day landers. At the conclusion of the World. War,

nursenes, 28 pubUc institutions, admitting ministry Western Samoa was assigned to New Zealand under

of priests. Tne following associations exist among a mandate from the League of Nations, dated 17

the clergy: Association for the Support of Sick December, 1920. The Governor General of New

Priests, Association of Catechists and Association of Zealand in Council has made laws for Western Samoa,

Clergy. The laity have forty associations. Four and Hon. E. P. Lee, Minister of General Affairs for

Cathohc periodicals are published in the archdiocese. New Zealand, is in charge of Samoa and other former

The cathedral at Salzburg (1647-1675) ranks as the German islands assigned to New Zealand. Provision

finest example of Germamc Renaissance architecture, has been made for a nominated Legislative Council,

Throughout the nineteenth century the see of to which are eligible for appointment natural bom

Salzburg was governed by many saintly and zealous British subjects, Samoans, or those bom in Samoa,

prelates among whom the Mt. Rev. Augustin Griiber The Council consists of not less than four ofiScial

(1823-1835) stands out pre-eminent. His successors members and an equal number of unofficial members,

were: Frederick Cardinal Count zu Schwarzenberg all meetings being presided over by the administrator.

(1836-1856), Maxmihan Joseph Cardinal von Tarnozy The civil administration was inaugurated 1 May.

(1850-1876), Francis Albert Cardinal Eder (1876- 1920. German currency is replaced by New Zealand

1890), John Evazigelistus Cardinal Haller (1890-1900), bank notes and specie. Militarv training of the

John Baptistus Cardinal Katschthaler (1900-1914), natives except for local police or defence purposes is

b. 20 May, 1832, d. 27 Feb. 1914, author of "Theo- prohibited, and no military or naval force or any

logica dogmatica" (1876-1888), "History of Church fortification may be established. These islands are