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workhouses; the College of St. Mel, which cele- brated its golden jubilee in 1912; 3 intermediate schools; 3 industrial schools, and the Societies of St. Vincent de Paul. Rt. Rev. Joseph Hoare, D. D., consecrated 10 March, 1895, to succeed Most Rev. B. Woodlock, D.D., is now bishop of the diocese. Since the Easter Rebellion in 1916 the diocese of Ardagh has suffered severe losses from the sacking of Granard, the fierce battles of Ballinalee, the de- struction of St. Mel's Temperance Hall, one of the finest in Ireland, the burning of houses, blowing up of roads and bridges, and numerous other deeds of violence.

Areqnipa (db Arbquipa; cf. C. E., I-701b), Dio- cese OF, in Peru, South America, is a suffrsigan of Lima. The present incumbent, Rt. Rev. Mariano Holguin, b. at Arequipa, I860, entered the Order of Friars Minor 1881, was ordained 1886, appointed Bishop of Huaraz 2 July, 1904, and transferred to Arequipa 30 May, 1906; made an assistant at the pontifical throne 12 August, 1915. By 1920 statistics the Catholic population of this diocese numbers 290,000; t^ere are 2 rectorates, 11 deaneries com- prising 72 parishes, and 5 students from this diocese are at the seminaiy at* Lima.

Arezsoy Diocese of ( AnREnNENSis ; cf. C. E., I-702b), in Tuscany, Italy, is directly dependent on the Holy See. Rt. Rev. Giovanni Volpi, who was appointed to this diocese in 1904, was transferred to the titular see of Antioch of Pisidia 3 July, 1919, and was succeeded bv the present bishop, Rt. Rev. Emanuele Mignone, b. at (Javatore, 1864, appointed Bishop of Volterra, 29 April, 1909, and transferred to Arezzo 18 December, 1919. The statistics for 1920 for this diocese give 250,300 Catholics, 330 parishes, 400 secular and 149 regular clergy, 135 seminarians, 436 churches or chapels, 44 brothers, and 147 sisters.

Argentine Sepublle (Argentina; cf. C. E., I-702d). — ^The area of the Argentine Republic is 1,153,119 square miles. According to the last ofi[icial census of 1 June, 1914, the total population was 7,885,237, distributed as follows: Argentines, 5,527, 285; foreigners, 402,555. The male population was given as 4,227,023, the female population 3,568,214. Of the foreign population 929,8i63 were* Italians, 829,701 Spaniards, 79,491 French, 126,201 Spanish- Americans (Bolivians, Chilians, Uruguayans, and Paraguayans), 36.442 Brazilians, 27,692 British, 26,995 Germans, 38,123 Austrians, and 3,449 citizens of the United States of America. It is estimated that the present population is 8,411,000.

The following table gives the figures for Argen- tine immigration and emigration smce 1910:

means of opening credits for intending emigrants.

Economic O)NDiTi0N8.~0f the 1,000,000 square miles of the republic, more tluin one-third is arable; 333,000 square miles can be utilized for cattle. In 1904 slightly over 26,000,000 acres were under cul- tivation, while in 1920 62,500,000 acres were reported imder specified cultivation. It is evident, therefore, that only one-third of the land known to be arable is at present utilized. According to the latest statistics wheat was sown on 16,975,770 acres, com on 8,7154217 acres, linseed on 3,521,670 acres, oats on 2,980,026 acres; alfalfa on 19^98,481 acres; flax on 3,083,619 acres. A campaign is being carried on for the further cultivation of cotton. The exporta^ tion of flour in 1919 represented a total of 130306 tons, estimated at $9,161,000. TucumAn produces over three-fourths of the total cane grown in the country. In 1919 the estimated national produc- tion of sugar amounted to 260,000 metric tons.

Foreign Trade.— The foreign trade of the Argen- tine Republic is mainly with the countries enumer- ated in the following table. The values of this trade are given in gold.

Imports from

Exports to


1917 180,080,222

1918 $124,900,102

1917 $155,217373


Great Britain








20.530,672 41.770,305




3.203.081 14.744.000



United States










Brazil ......





Germany .... Belgium





1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918.












136,405 172,041 172,996 219,529 243,701 148,425 122,328 83,996 59.908

As the number of emigrants has exceeded that of immigrants since 1914, plans are being made for the attraction of immigration to the country. In 1920 steps were taken oy Austria to promote the emigration to Argentina of her working classes by

The United States trade with Argentina for five years was as follows:

Imports Exports

Year (to U.S.) (from U.S.)

1914 '. $49,468,512 $43,507,753

1915 93,706,075 75,589,885

1916 119,730,145 106,988,508

1917 161,270,764 138,084,920

1918 165,151,620 169,506,948

The total trade of the republic in 1919 was: im- port, $533,159,000; export, $867323,000. In 1920 it was: import, $850,000,000; export, $1,000,000,000.

The chief import from Argentina into the United States in the year 1917 was wool, $100,533,658; the chief exports from the United States to Argentina were textile manufactures, $45,748,600; foodstuffs* $33,038,155; iron manufactures, $17386,366.

Shipping and Navigation.— In 1917 the registered shipping consisted of 1,108 steamers of 2,966,518 tons, and 216 sailing vessels of 294,917 tons; total, 1,324 of 3,261,435 tons. In 1917 the number of ocean-going vessels which entered the port of Buenos Aires was 975, with an aggregate tonnage of 2,420,809 tons, as against 1,757 of 4,527,790 tons in 1915.

HiEEtARCRT. — ^The Argentine hierarchy consists of the Archbishop of Buenos Aires, and the Bishops of C6rdoba, La Plata, Parand, San Juan de Cuyo, Santa F^, Salta, Tucuman, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Corrientes. There is a seminary in each diocese under the control of the bishop for the support of which an appropriation is made yearly. The Argentine nation has an Envoy Ex- traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Kome. The Apostolic Intemunciature to Argentine was raised to a Nunciature in July, 1916, when the re- public celebrated the centenary of its independence. The new envoy, Mgr. Alberto Vassallo di Torre-