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ARGENTINE BEPUBUC 55 ARIZONA

ETOflBa, titular archbishop of Emesa, arrived at Argyll and the Isles, Diocese of (Ebgadibnbib

fiuenoe Aires in June, 1916. st Insulabum; cf. C. E., I-706c), comprises the

Education. — The system of education comprises County of Argyll, the southern part of Inverness

the .following divisions : primary, secondary, normal, and the Islands of Bute and Arran and the Hebrides,

special (including industrial, commercial, agricul- It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of St. Andrews

tural, artistic, and education of defectives), and and Edinburgh, and is under the administration of

higher education. Frimary education is compulsory Rt. Rev. Donald Martin, the third bishop since the

for all children from six to fourteen years old; it restoration of the diocese in 1878, and successor to

is supported by the national Government and the Bishop Smith, who died 18 January, 1918. Bishop

Governments of the different provinces and its Martin was bom in Ardnamurchan 6 October, 1873,

general administration is in charge of the National appointed bishop 2 April, 1919, and consecrated at

Council of Education. Id 1918 there were in the Oban 9 June of the same year,

republic, including night schools and private institu- During the World War, out of the veiy small

tions, 8,494 schools with 1,019,944 pupils and 31,872 number of clergy belonging to this diocese, three

teachers. Primary education covers a period of served as chaplains: Rev. John MacNeill, serving

six years; secondary education is imparted by the with the 9th Division (Highland), was mentioned

ColegiosNacionales (National Secondary Schools), in dispatches, was wounded twice, and won the

and in private schools under government super- military cross with a bar; Rt. Rev. Hugh Cameron,

vision. There are 38 ^'Colegios Nacionales imder vicar general to the Lovat Scouts, served in Gal-

the supervision of the General Superintendent of lipoli, Egypt, Palestine, and was mentioned in dis-

Secondary, Normal, and Special Education, with patches; Rev. Duncan Campbell was attached to

an enrolment of 11,022 students; 39 private secon- the 51st (Highland) Division. Although this dio-

dary schools with an enrolment of 3,288 students; cese comprises a large territory, its Catholic popu-

moreover, each of the National Universities has a lation is comparatively small and there is little

secondary school department. The secondary school activity. The present (1921) statistics show: 24

course covers five years. missions, 45 churches and mission stations, 34

Li 1918 there were 82 normal schools, besides the secular priests, 2 convents of sisters, and 38 elemen-

private normal schools. Industrial education is tary schools.

gven in the so^Ued indu^rial schools, of which j^^^^ Biocebe op (Abianbnsis; cf. C. E.,

there are 24. There are 8. National Commerce j^^jq^j ^3 ^ g^ffragan of Benevento in Southend

Schools. The schools of agriculture, five m num- x- . 'h„rJn., *h^ Lr fw^-f^ ,.rio«t« ^^a «,ifK


ounuuiB. xiix: ^uuxim ui «5"«uii.ur«, iivc lu uum- j^j During the war twenty priests served with

^l\.J!Z^ ^th^n'IStXLio^flH^^^^^ ^I^L^Hn^ the Italian a?my and the canoS of the cathedral

connected with an agronomic station. Higher edu- chaplain in a military hospital. Rt. Rev.

cation IS Kiven m the three National Umversities: 7^ • ^"***'*^* . *" " iT T >p "'^*'*™ ^t awt.

C6rdoba, the oldest, with five faculti^; Buenos pJ^'P^^tP^l^fl^^^ A'^t.^hl^\\l ^T^^

a;«« *k. 1o.««»* r»i*u civ. ^r.A T« Pi«*o LifK fi^o 1862, elected bishop 4 November, 1918, was conse-


Aires, the largest, with six; and La Plata with five. ^«„+Ij K;oi.«r^ ^t a,.:„a*n io To«,,«J,' ioia ^I

There are also two provincial universities at Tucu- "^^^^^^'^^ '2 m^ t.""^ ^'^^^' ^? January 1919. Ho

«v&« ««ti fi^M^f « ^A >ri.T; ™)™ tZi^ succeeded Rt. Rev. Cosimo Agistmo, who was born

man and Santa F6. The government also mam- j„ n^roro ift Ar.rii ijwn oion*o^ ♦« t.o«o^o«;« oq

tains three 12 per cent

th^NldSnia UrdvSIf rhelTtto^l. with^m" JS'*^' AP^°"^,*f dtatt.^h^lSfs'^'Hi^'nJf:

plete courses in technical instruction, to take place *u.^™ p* n J rl^*^ r ^' i' ^'^

it the industrial school fonneriy in operation in It^L t?o?tL f^' i^5 P"'^*^"^' ^- J' '

Roeario A noDular university was in process of elected m 1913, and resigned and was

^f^>o««;«iJf:/>r> (L looft «r;fk a^t^I^^^tx**, /^F i««» a..f trausfcrred in 1915. Rt. Rev. Andrea Agostino

oigamtation in 1920 with departments of law, art, p^^eded Bishop Carcaterra, b. 1838, elected 1 June,

RBOtNT Hi8TOBT.-In 1911 diplomatic relations o!^' X'^'4," J^'T'*'?' 11"' J"^ *•>«> diocese are

w.*™I« Ai-t,«»!^. .t^ n!it:.Jl \!X^\, \.Ja uZlZ 24 parishes, 91 churches, 3 abbeys for men, 4 monas-

between Argentina and Bolivia, which luid been tg^i^g f^ ^ • , J^ j g^ ^^ ^

S"e5^ri9TS?e* ^rst^^a^^rtrtT^^^t^^ f X??SiJ 7^^ d'it^^T.

Ar«ntina Brazil and Chile signed in Bu^enos Aires iffi'^ Zor^a^ ft e' wZft "ubl^hX'" *

on 25 May, provided for a five years peace among ^ *^' h"""o"^^'

the three nations, during which time each was Arlsona (cf. C. E., I-719b). — ^Arizona is the

pledged not to make war on either one of the newest state in the Union, having been admitted

others until the cause of the conflict had been in- on 14 February, 1912.

vestigated and reported by an impartial commis- Recent History. — In 1906 joint statehood was sion. In 1917 trouble rose between the republic and proposed for Arizona and New Mexico and re- Germany over the sinking of the Argentine ships jected, almost unanimously in Ariiona. In 1910 hv German submarines. It came to a climax when an enabling act, passed by Congress, authorized the correspondence of the German minister at Arizona to call a constitutional convention. The Buenos Aires revealed a dispatch to his govern- constitution, thus formulated, contained some ment, advising the sinking without warning of salient features, among which were the following: Argentine vessels. Thoroughly aroused the Ar^en- an eight-hour day, the prohibition of the sale of tines immediately broke off diplomatic relations liquor to Indians, the initiative and referendum, with Germany, though they did not share in providing 10 per cent of the qualified electors the active part taken by the United States in the petition for the former, and 5 per cent for the European War. In 1919 the country joined the latter, and the recall of public ofificers upon petition League of Nations. Among the recent legal enact- of 25 per cent of the electors. The application of ments were a law, effective on 1 January, 1917, the recall to the judiciary caused the veto of the withdrawing from the stores permission to open on statehood bill by President Taft, despite the passage Sundays, and forbidding the sale of liquor from of the Act through the two houses of Congress. 12 p. m. on Saturdays to 12 p. m. on Sundays, With the removal of the offending feature the bill and a decree in 1920 providing for the colonization was signed on 22 August, 1912, and became law. of 30,000 square miles of state lands. Following the admission to statehood thus attained