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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/719

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8PAIK 703 SPAIN

Nazareno, Nuestra Senora del Carmen. On 1 Jan- ment. During the World War, Spain maintained

uary, 1919^ there were 2732 patients, and with strict neutrality.

21,790 admitted during the year, the total number of Political Situation. — ^The various political par- patients included 12,604 men and 11,918 women, ties at present are the Conservatives, Liberals, Re- The five asylums of Madrid, including the Hospicio formists. Republicans, Resdonalists (Catalonia) , Carl- de Madrid, Asilo de Nuestra Sefiora de la Paloma, ists, ana Independents. Until a recent date all the Asilo de Vallehermoso, de Santa Cnstina. and de progressive elements in the country were republican, Nuestra Sefiora de Las Mercedes, shelterea in 1919 anti-clerical and Jacobin. The monarchy was re- a total of 5059 people. There are sixty emergency duced to seekins a basis in the rural population, hospitals in the country. The number of insane people which, for several causes, amonc[ which lack of proper (2185) added in 1919 to those already present m the communications and an insufficient standard of edu- asylums of the capitals brought the total up to 9187. cation are prominent, were politically passive. The The number of lepro^ cases treated in 1914 was result was a political system, based on the predomi- 874 and in 19^, 1(^9, an increase of 165. nance of local demagogues, called in Spain caciques.

Special mention should be made of the work of the The cacique keeps the constituency in hand for the

Society of Saint Vincent de Paul in Spain. Owing benefit of the Government's canoidate, and in ex-

to the incomplete data given for the year 1919 the change, the Government puts all the power of the

figures published are those for 1918. In that year 621 State at the service of the local activities of the cacique,

conferences and meeting were held; 10,549 families Throughout the Restoration period the actual working

were visited: 1212 marriages regulated; 444 children of the system was entrusted to a political machinery

legitimatized; 5202 children and 2487 adults were in- composed of two parties, the Liberals and Conserva-

structed; personal taxes, 23,332 pesetas; funds: income, tives. The Conservative party, now in power, stands

1,105,055 pesetas; expenditure, 1,039^543 pesetas. In for the old order of thinss in general, the make haste

all, the number of benevolent institutions were 11,274; slowly" principle; its adherents are of various shades

their funds amounted to 548,811,447 pesetas ^ the of opinion. Tne maiority of them are heart and soul

average fund of each institution 48.679 pesetas; their for the present monarcny and for a constitutional

total revenues. 15 f995fil9 pesetas, tne average income Spain. Others are Carlists" and hark back to the

of each founoation, 1418 pesetas; average fund for oMer regime. Others want to see no change whatever

each inhabitant, 26.49 pesetas, — ^they are the "stand-patters" of the party. Others

Defence. — Military service in Spain is compulsory, are strong clericals ana see in any change an attack The total term of service is for 18 years, divided into on the vested rights of the Church. The Liberal the following: 1 year recruits in deposit; 3 years party believes in developing Spain to the extreme lim- active army (first standing); 5 years active army its of pure Constitutionalism without actually destroy- (second standing); 6 years reserve; and 3 years tern- ins the monarchy, no matter what interests may torial reserve (not yet organized). In 1916 a central suffer. The maiority of its adherents are strictly con- general staff of the army was appointed. The coun- stitutional and aevoted to the monarchy. They want try is divided up into eight territorial districts, each the broadest measure of modem political invention, under a Captain-General. The peace establishment whether Spain is ready for it or not. Then comes the for 1920 was fixed at 216,649 men of all ranks (64,355 Republican party, which may be described as being in Morocco) , and the total strength of the field army in the same relation (in the inverse order) to the Liber- would probably be about 300,000 combatants. The als as the Carlists are to the Conservatives. They are army is organized in 16 divisions, each of 2 brigades anti-constitutional and anti-monarchical, and desire and 1 of artillery. There are also the Guardia Civil a republic in Spain. They follow the Radicals, who and the Carabineros, the former a constabulary, the are the apostles of discontent, and whose members latter a military police used as customs guard on the are of all shades of opinion, theorists. Socialists, and frontier, both recruited from the army and under aome of the white slove" or philosophical school of military discipline. Outside the Spanish peninsula anarchy. They are divided into various groups, such there are the three military conmiands of Melilla, as Regionalists, Independents, etc. Ceuta and Larache in Morocco, also the Balearic The situation in Spain today is the result of the Islands and the Canary Islands. contemporaneous maturing of two movement-s, each

Government. — The various provinces and coni- aiming at a transformation of the political and social munes of Spain are governed by provincial and muni- order of the nation. The one is called in Spain the cipal laws. Since 1 January, 1918, every commune regionalist movement," and the other, the Spanish has its own elected ayuniamientOf consisting of from manifestation of the same social unrest that is sweep- five to fifty reoidoreSf or concejales, and presided over ing the world, is industrial in character and aims at by the Alcalde, at whose side stand, in the larger nothing less than social revolution. The regionalist towns, aeveT&ltendentes alcaldes. The entire municipal movement, as a whole, is a concerted attack on the Government, with power of taxation, is vested in the central Government. It is, in other words, a political ayurUamientos, Half the members are elected every movement aiming at a decentralization of govem- two years, and they appoint the alcalde, the executive mental control by a recognition of the great historic functionary, from their own body. Members cannot '^regions" of Spain, to be erected into autonomous or be reelected until after two years. Each province in even into independent States. In two regions par- Spain has its own Assembly, the DiptUacion Provin- ticularly, this agitation for reponal autonomy is cud, the members of which are elected by the con- intensified by a local nationalistic propaganda of stituencies. The dipuiacianes provinciales meet in more or less ancient origin. The Basques and Cata- annual session, and are permanently represented by lonians, by virtue of their Spanish language, litera- the comision provincicd, a committee appointed every ture, and race, are appealing to the principle of self- year. The Constitution of 1876 secures to the dipu. determination for "oppressed nationalities." The iaciones provinciales and the ayurUamientos the govern- enthusiasm for the movement has made it powerful ment and administration of the respective provinces enough to become an issue throughout the peninsula, and communes. Neither the national executive nor With one-tenth of the total population of the nation, the Cortes has the right to interfere in the established Catalonia pays one-fifth of the taxes, buys one-half municipal and provincial administration, notwith- the imports, and sells one-third of the exports of the standing which pressure is too frequently brought to whole nation. It is, therefore, difficult to reconcile bear upon the local elections by the Central Govern- the Catalonians to the control of the central Govem-

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