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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/720

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ment. Moreover, Catalans feel alien from Castilians, of reforesting; (7) the creation of an organized bodv

Andalusians from Galicians. to shape economic policies during the transition period.

In direct contrast to this movement is the Span- Incluaed also is the construction of a large system of ish" movement 2 lacking the separatist patnotic railways. In 1917 it was estimated that the hydro- animus , but aimmg simply at a political re-organiza- electric power utilized in Spain is equal to 2,000,000 tion of the nation as the moral and social renovation tons of coal, a present value of $80,000,000. It is of government in Spain. The proposed reorganization necessary to exploit water power on account of the has, however, been radical enough to arouse deter- coal shortag;e. The industrial situation in Spain mined opposition in the central Government. has been unique for two reasons, one being that a

At present there is division in the ranks of the considerable proportion of employers has been limited

Socialist party. Hiis has strengthened the S3rndical- to companies wnose directing bodies resided abroad,

ist movement, which is -economic, not political. This circumstance introduced into labor questionB a

The Socialists have met with bitter and uncom- national consideration together with difficulties of

promising opposition from the established order and international law. It is proposed now that sdl

m their present attitude are bound to remain a concessions for the use of wat^ power and mines

negative or at most a merely critical force in the must be limited to individuals and companies living

politics of the nation. However^ they have been in Spain, an important factor in the present mdustrial unrest of

Spain. Other contributing causes are the privations Spalato and Macanka, Diocese op (Spala-

of the economic crisis and the agitation in mUitary tensib et Macatocenbis; cf. C. E., XIV--207d),

circles. The consequent widespread strikes and dis- ^ Jugoslavia, suffragan of Zara, m 1917 had a

turbances brought about the r&e and fall of several Catholic population of 201,149 with about 10,.500

ministries and at times the placing of the whole schismatics and about 3000 Protestants. There are

country under martial law. The dissatisfaction in 08 parishes, 281 secular and 79 regular priests,

the army is due to what is held to be favoritism, Mgr. Gjivoic, who succeeded to the see 11 July

certain officers receiving advancement through court 1«11> °'^, ?' February, 1917. He was succeeded

influences, and also to the insufficiency of pay and ^y one of his two auxiliaries, resident at Macarska,

lack of adequate military organization. This re- R^- Rev- George Caric, bom 1867, elected titular

suited in the organization by the officers, the gen- bishop of Ceramus and auxiliary to the bishop of

darmerie and customs officials of juntas for the Spalato. 1906, bemg consecrated at Rome by Caitiinal

defense of their interests. So great was their in- Merry del Val. He died 17 May, 1921, and ttie see

fluence in 1917 that the army was in actual revolution ^ still vacant. Mgr. Vmcent Palunkp. titular birfiop

and the political situation in Spain was most critical. ?^,^^\ojR?]^ and auxiliary to the bishop of Spalato

The military juntas are reactionary and are opposed (elected 1904) resides at Spalato.

  • ^T oK^r ?,rfSnni**ol^ Wi/vtM* rnhdirr^ ^ ih^rr «r« Spaldlng, JaMEB FiELD, b. at Eufield, ConnCCtl-

• Liabor unions, or sinaicatos Latolicos, as tney are «„♦ • iqqo. j «♦ Ur^o+r*,* ^« o a,i«m,b4- iooi 'ru^,^.,^

called, have b4n formed, however, knd are still cut, m 1839: d. at Boston on 9 August, 102^^^^

bemg 'formed among the miners, railVoad men, and ^T'' ""^ ^ ^^^'^V' ^^"^ F'^rfc "li^?^ ^'^ZSf'^

men of other trades- classes of social work have been a storm among the Protestants like that caused by

ZZuLh^e^^i^^ S'^r^^^r^^rri of AngUcanmm in 1845.

treatment of tfceir^ workmen. Casas Social^ ^h S!S'^iL*^„^fSo^^

«<w.»aAf;/N,% -<v^^o ^^v-^»xA«.«4-u*<> o4»«.<M> fk^ofKAa Ko-TTA Mass., and m loo J from Williams Uollege. He was

iwreationroonM,. co-operative stor^, theatres have ^^ ^ Congregationalist, but was di^tisfied with

been established m a few cities; and last but by no vT J » y""»*^5*v*""*** . *'» \^\ "**** i- u ^ ^oio

means the lewt, practically tAe entire populition J*« doctrine and becoming Epifl«)p«lian about 1868.

has beenformed ilito an aasocWn caUed mindicato tl "?u.?j:!^^.,4!?*^" -^Zu=??^°Pt>!:«??» J'^

eetablwhment ten yeara ago enrolled as associates v^uuiuu, v.wuurju8c.iu «,.». ii^« uu^wu *w«ve

600,000 famiUes, r^presenfing about three million y"»" afterwawto. ttat he entered the True FWd,

soufs. These ai^ formed into a nation-wide union ««»n<>'«»««5« «« »»» "»«>'» ^jat »»« '<«««* the EpB-

of 6000 sindicato» or local branches with divisions in «>P«»l««^"n* «»<? the entire Anglican community

each province, whUe individual towns are subject ^^ ^*^ rationalism and free thmkmg and

to the province. It is truly democratic in organiza- """e^'®*'

tion; the workmen or farmers of each town elect their fipaldlng, John Lancaster. — Scholar, distin- representative, the representatives of the towns guished churehman and first Bishop of the Diocese elect the chief of each province, and the last named of Peoria, Illinois, b. at Lebanon, Kentucky, 2 June, elect the general director of the confederation. Each 1840; d. at Peoria 25 August, 1916. He received his federation or local branch takes care of the temporal education at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmits- welfare of the associates, interests itself in all disputes burg, the University of Louvain, Belgium^ and the between workmen and employers, makes loans, and American College in Rome. After his ordmation to has a loan fund as well as a sick fund. Theorganiza- the priesthood, he was designated as one of the tion of other unions, or sindicaioSf of workmen of assistant priests at the Cathedral in LouisviUe, various trades is similar to that of the Agrarian Kentucky, and later was made secretary to the Federation. The railroad union has 6000 or 7000 Bishop of Louisville and chancellor of the dioce««e. associates. Its worth was exhibited in the railway From 1872-77 he was stationed at St. Michael^s strikes of 1916 and 1917, when its members, not being Chureh in New York City, where he had n>ne to convinced of the reason and justice of the strike, write the life of his uncle, the Most Rev. Martin refused to strike. John Spalding, seventh Archbishop of Baltimore. The policy of reconstruction is at present much Appointed first bishop of the See of Peoria 27 Nov., discussed in Spain. It comprises the following 1876, he was consecrated in New York City by Car- objects: (1) the nationalization of the main railroad dinal McCloskey 1 May, 1877. He was very active lines and change of legislation in regard to the less in the cause of Catholic higher education and was one important lines; (2) regulation of concessions of water- of the prime movers in the establishment of the pres- courses; (3) extensive appropriation for public works: ent Catholic University at Washinffton, D. C. He (4) changes in the mining regulations; (5) agricultural also codperated quite actively in tne movement for credit; (6) organization of agricultural education and Catholic colonization of the West, and in 1902 he was