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ened with death if they attempted to enter its sacred industries, but engage in agriculture or in oommeroe.

precincts. As in all parts of the East that once had the Faith,

At the present time (1922) all the communities it is very difficult to make conversions: among the

are once more in their monast^es, except that of schismatics on account of their lack of the spirit of

Mohammedans on ac- The Prot- societies,^ have

effects of the war was a much closer union between opened a good number of schools in the district;

Church and State in France, termed the "Union their proselytes are mostly Armenians who follow

Sacr^e/' which has made it pcNSsible for nearly all of Ufe Protestant exercises as long as they receive sup-

the French monajsteries to recall their '^houses of port; but after leaving they are usually neither Prot-

refuge" which had been established in various parts estant nor schismatic, becoming quite indifferent in

of tne world some twenty ^rears ago, when under religious matters. At the present time, as a result

threat of expulsion from their own nomes. A well of the War, the number of Catholics has been greatly

known house of this kind was "Petit Clairvaux/' diminished, partly on account of the massacre of the

in Nova Scotia, all the members of which are now at Armenians, and partly because so many Catholics

their home in the Abbey of Thymadeuc Another of Latin Rite were dnven into exile. There are at

wholesome effect was from the influence that death the end of 1921 only about 300 Catholics, mostly of

in all its horror had upon many serious minded men the Latin Rite, who are living in the cities along the

in l^e army; viewine this in immediate proximity sea-coast.

for so long a time, and learning therefrom the lesson There are Latin churches in the seven (}uasi> of the futility of earthly ambition, as well as the vanity parishes, Trebizond, Erserum, Kerassunda, Sinope, of temporal pleasures, large numbers of these turned Samsim, IneboliandSt. Stephen's. In addition there to God with their whole heart and not a few soldiers, are five chapels belonging to reli^ous communities, from the rank of commander down to simple private. There are twelve priests in the Mission and four lay- as well as naval officers and men, from the grade ot brothers. The Fathers are assisted by the Christian captain down, have entered various monasteries of Brothers in Trebisond, the MaristBrouiers in Samsun the order, and are proving themselves fervent reli- and the Sisters of St. Joseph in Trebisond, Kerassunda gious. New foundations have been established: and Samsun. Before the War there was a Capuchin one at Banz, an old and beautiful Benedictine monas- higher school in Erzerum with 150 pupils; a Christian tery in Bavaria; another at Himenrode in the Rhine- Brothers school at Trebizond with 120 pupils; a land; a third in the Italian Tyrol; as well as some other Marist Brothers school at Samsun with 200 pupils; places. Cistercian Nuns were also established at the while the schools of the Sisters of St. Joseph had 100 well-fitted monastery near the famous pilgrima^ of pupils at Trebizond, 120 at Samsun, and 60 at Sainte Anne d'Aura^r (from whence was established Kerassunda. At the present time, however, most the well-known pilgrimage shrine of Sainte Anne de of the schools have been destroyed, but the Capuchin Beaupr6, in Canada). In the same year (1921) Fathers have one at Trebizond with 90 pupils, the Trappistines of Notre Dame de Consolation, at while another has just been started at Kerassunda with B^angon, the direct line from the ancient nuns of 25. The superior of the Mission. R. P. Lorenzo de Port-Royal, were reinstated in the order. A couple Monte Marciano, was bom in Sicily on 16 December, of more houses of Trappistines in Belgium were also 1867, entered the Capuchin novitiate in 1883, and restored to the order at the same time. In America, after studying in the East and teaching philosophv at Notre Dame du Lac, Oklahoma, was destroyed by Constantinople was named superior on 10 November, fire on the feast of St. John, 1916, and since rebuilt. 1911. In August. 1920 he was appointed Adminis- the new church and monastery having been reopened trator ApoetoGc ot Smyrna, on the feast of the Assumption, 1921.

Edmond M. Obrecht. Treja» Abchdiggbsb or. See Cambbixo

Trebizond, Mission of.— The mission originally Trent, Diocbsb of (Tmdentinknsi^ cf. C. E., established in Georgia in 1661, was confided to the XV—i35d), in Styria, Italy, directly subject to the Capuchin Order. For nearly two centuries these Holy See. The diocese had been imder the jurisdiction missionaries, having built hospitals and schools in of Salsburg, since 1825, until a decree of 24 February, the chief cities, labored there m comparative peace. 1920, changed it and made it dependent on Rome. But in 1845, by a decree of Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia, The see is mled by Rt. Rev. Celestin Endrici born in • they were expelled: the Mission of Georgia was aban- the diocese in 1866, ordained in 1891, appointed doned, and the Fathers settled at Trebizond, on bishop 6 February, 1904, and named an assistant at the shores of the Black Sea. They founded a new the pontifical throne 30 March, 1908. Before and mission there, and established stations, churches and during the World War his Lordship the Bishop car- schools in several of the cities. In 1845 it was made ried on a fierce struggle against the Austrian authori- a prefecture apostolic, but on 12 September, 1896, ties to safeguard the native language (Italian) for the it was reduced to the status of amission. country. By the peace treaty Trent, which com-

The Mission of Trebizond has the same boundaries prises the Southern part of the Tyrol, was siven to

as the Vicariate Apostolic of Constantinople, lying Italy. The diocese is divided into 286 parishes and

between 28 d^rees and 39 degrees E. longitude, has 636 churches, 3 monasteries for women, 1 abbey

and 39 and 42 £groes N. latitude. On the southern for men and 1 for women, 38 convents of men, 151

side the mission is bounded by the Vicariate of for women, 1169 secular and 121 regular clergy^ 194

Mesopotamia and Persia, and on the northern side Brothers, 1713 Sistens. 2 seminaries, 450 seminari-

by the metropolitan Church of Saratof in Russia, ans, 4 secondary schools for boys with 50 teachers and

The people are subject to the Turkish Government, 497 pupils, 10 secondary schools for girls with 112

butatpresentareunderthecontrolof the Nationalists, teachers and 785 pupils, 4 normal schools with 120

Various languages are spoken in the mission, but teachers and 1381 pupils, 1 professional school with

principally Turkish, Greek, Armenian and French. 23 teachers and 320 Vupils and 1 industrial school

The chief cities in the mission are Trebizond^ Erzerum*, with 7 teachers and 35 pupils. All the public instita-

Samsun, Kerassunda, Sinope, Ineboli. Tne popula- tions permit the priests to minister in them. One

tion numbers about 1,500,000. The people are in societjr is formed among the cleigy and 17 different

general war-Uke and undisciplined; tney have no organisations among the laity, and 6 Catholic jour-