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War in 1911, and endiDjc in the Treaty of SdvreB in captured the town, overwhelmed the Turkish army

1920. In 1913^ Greece, Servia, Montenegro, declared at Dialah and, on 11 March, made his triumphal

war on Bulgaria. The Turks took advantage of the entry into Bagdad. Joining hands with the Russians

discord among their enemies and the with(&awal of he marched on to Samarra. On the Russo-Turkish

the Bulgarian anny from TchataldJa to march toward front were six Russian armies. In Armenia a decisive

Adrianople, which they took with ease on 22 July, battle in January, 1915, shattered the Turki^ line

Bulgaria, overwhelmin^y beaten, sued for peace, on the Arasa River and near Lake Totum. Erzerum

Thus Bulgaria lost Adnanople and control of railway was taken by the Russians after a five dajrs' assault,

connections with D4d6agatch, her new single seaport The first Russian army captured Trebizond in April

on the A^ean. For a while a new war threatened and headed for Platana and Djivizlyk in May and

between Turkey and Greece; in October, Anatolian June. Another penetrated the mountains of the

reservists were calletf to the colors by the Turkish upper Choruk, took Mamakhatum, Baiburt. Ardasa.

Government and the center of the Greek armv was Gumushkaneh and Erizingan in July. "Old Armenia

moved to Kavala^ the easternmost point of Thrace, was thus lost to Turkey. The other Russian armies

Diplomatic relations were, however, resumed and were not so successful. The third army, barely

resulted on 13 November. 1913, in the conclusion of escaped disaster in the Lake Van region, llie fourth

a treaty providinj^ for the settlement of religious, and fifth were driven back in northwestern Persia,

racial, and financial affairs in Grecian Thrace ana The sixth struggling westward along the caravan

Macedonia. In Februuy, 1914, the powers restored route from Kerman^ to Bagdad was hurled back

Imbros, Tenedos, and Castelloriso, off Asia Minor, almost 200 miles into the interior of Persia. About

to Turkey and awarded to Greece all the other islands, this time a formidable uprising in Arabia occurred.

World War. — ^After the Balkan Wars, Turkey Undertheleadershipof the insursent^heriff of Mecca,

determined to improve the military and naval position the Arab rebels not only established themselves in

of the government and as evidence appointed several Mecca, but also captured Jedda and Kinfunda and

German army officers of high rank to positions of beleaguered Taif. In November, 1916, their new

prime importance in the aciml command of the army. "Kingdom of the Hedjaz was proclaimed.

Therefore, it is easy to understand the pro-German After repelling a Turkish attack on the Suez Canal,

influence that led Turkeyto cast her lot with Germany early in August, 1916, an army of Australasians,

in the Great European War. Still, at the beginning Indians, and Englishmen, skirted the Mediterranean

of the great struggle, it insisted on neutrality, belying. Coast eastward, occupied El Arish and MaghdabaJb,

its statements, however, by mobilising immediately, ninety miles east of the Canal, and struck northwards

Soon after the declaration of war, two German into ralestine: at Gaza they inflicted a heavy loss

cruisers in the Mediterranean, the Goeben and upon the Turkish army, but did not take the city.

Breslau. took refuge in the harbor of Constantinople. Greneral Edward Allenby succeeded General Murray,

The Allies protested and the Turks answered by and succeeded in taking Beersheba, Gaza, and cutting

abrogating tne conventions known as the Capitular the Jaffa^Jerusalem railroad. On November, 16,

tions,wherebyforeijgnerBin that country were exempt Jaffa was occupied and on 10 December, 1917,

from local jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. Jerusalem surrendered to the British.

The Vatican protested along with the Powers that the According to the Treaty of Peace with Turkey,

abrogation put an end to religious liberty. The signed at Sevres on 10 August, 1920. the Turkish

Turlu immediatdy closed the Dardanelles to com- E&pire is very much reduced. Turkey cedes (1)

merce. On 29 October, 1914. the Breslau, masquerad- Thrace, west of the Chatalja and exceptmg only the

ing as a Turkish cruiser, snelled Russian towns on Derkos water supply to Greece, as well as Tenedos

the Black Sea and three Turkish torpedo boats raided and Imbros, and the Islands in the Aegean occupied

Odessa. On 3 November. Russia declared war on by Greece; (2) Smyrna with the surrounding strip,

Turkey, and on 27 November, the Sultan of Turkey compriMng Tireh. Odemish, Magnisa, Akhissar,

Sroclaimed a Jehad or Holy War to be waged by aU Berg-hama and Aivali, is to be administered by lohammedans against "the enemies of Islam." Greece, under Turkish sovereignty, for 5 years after Except for some spasmodie uprising against French which the territory may annex itself to Greece by rule in Morocco the Mohammeoan subjects of plebiscite; (3) Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria, Ar- England and France gave little heed to this proclama- menia, and the Hejz became independent, the first tion. Coincident wiUi Turkey's entry into the war, three under mandatories; (4) Kurdistan has autonomy the British formally annexed the Greek-speaking conferred upon it; (5) CasteUorizo and the Dodecanese Island of Cyprus and terminated Turkish suzerainty are ceded to Italy. Turkey retained Constantinople, in £2gypt. Already a British force from India had but the coastal area of the DardaneUes, the Marmora land^ at the heaa of the Persian Gulf, had taken and the Bosphorus are i>laced under the control of a Basra, on 23 November, and were preparing for an "Commission of the Straits" appointed by the League invasion of Mesopotamia with Bagdad as their of Nations. At the same time England, France, and objective. In February, an Anglo-French fleet of Italy made a tripartite agreement in which they more than fifty warships attempted to force the undertook to support each other in maintaining their passage of the Dardanelles and to reduce Constan- respective spheres of influence in Turkey, tinople, but suffered such severe losses that the The prospective creation of a free state of Con- co-operation of land forces was deemed necessary. In stantinople led to a demand by the Young Turks April, British and French forces from Egypt landed that Damad Pasha be ousted for his alleged failiure at the eastern end of Gallipoli, between Gaba to win for Turicey more concessions in the signing of Tepe and Ari Bumu and suffered great losses under the treaty; the Sultan declined to remove him. Finally the heavy fire of the Turks. Tlie whole enterprise the landmg of additional Greek and Italian troops at was from the British point of view a ghastly failure, Smyrna and Adalia, together with the seizure of due to lack of expenenced leader^p, mismanage- Koneih, an important rauway center in Asia Minor, ment, a deficient water supply, and inclement by the Nationalist insuTKents, caused the downfall of weather, and cost Great Britian 117,000 casualties, the Entente ministry. The Nationalists immediately Serious fighting took place in Mesopotamia and on set up a rival government at Angora. Soon they 28 April, 1915, General Townshend was forced to controlled a large part of Anatolia. In the hope that surrender Kut-el-Amara after being surrounded and thewretched conditions in Turk^ would be stabilised, beneged. His fate was avenged by General F. S. an Anglo-Frahco-Italian army occupied Constanti- Maude, who with an augumentcMi British force re- nopleon 16 Mareh, 1920, and the Turkish government