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783,702; Irish potatoes 12,263,374 bushels, value salaries of teachers $5,162,470; axmiial cost of build-

S26.979,423: sweet potatoes and yams 5,981,348 ing $1,085,690; libraries and class equipment $1,676 ,-

bushels, value $9,570,164; oats 1,958,609 bushels, 918; total value of school property $18,862,254, an

value $2,154,475; rye 456,689 bushels, value $822,039; increase in six years of over 100 per cent,

buckwheat 232,507 bushels, value $360,390; barley In 1920 the University of Vu-ginia had 88 pit>-

229,301 bushels, value $332,490; and in tons of hay fessors, 18 officials, 931 students, and including the

and forage 1,989.282, value $41,847,594. The sununer school, 2737.

cultivation of alfalfa is increasing and covers 24,348 In 1919 women were admitted to the CJoUege of

acres. The value of crops in 1920 was $262,252,283 William and Mary and Laurel Industrial School was

from 4,579,367 acres.' The number of dairy cows in transferred to the State. The laws governing private

the same year was 509,305. valued at $28,596,179. and parochial schools include the following: the

Since 1910 the number of sheep has decreaiaed from State Board of Health shall have the power to

438,719 to 342,367. The value of live stock in 1920 enforce rules and regulations from time to time,

was $121,969,^1. requiring and providing for the thorough sanitation

Manufactures, — ^According to the latest census of of all schools. No appropriations shall be made

manufactures (1919) there were in the State 5,603 to any sectarian institutions.

manufacturing establishments, with an aggregate Recent Legislation and Histort. — Several

capital of $464,517,000, employing 119,400 people; important Acts were passed in 1912, to provide for

the cost of raw material used $372,041,000 and the a new State institution for the feeble-mmded, also

value of the product to $641,810,000. surgical aid for the indigent, crippled, and deformed.

Mining. — ^The mineral ouput of Virginia in 1918 the establishment of the first juvemle court in the

was worth $37,639,368. About 10,087,000 tons of State, primary elections for all except presidential

coal and 1,304.000 tons of coke was mined, also electors, segregation districts for the residence of

472,337 tons oi iron ore and 562,299 tons of pig white and colored people. On 1 November, 1916,

iron. Norfolk alone exported 17,500,000 tons of state-wide prohibition went into effect. In the same

coal. There are 50 accredited mineral sprii^. vear, in order to extend the usefulness of agricultural

About 855,000,000 feet of lumber were cut in high schools the Legislature voted to offer h'beral

1918. In September, 1919, there were 147 banks terms to school districts which wished to borrow from

(national) with total resources of $430,241,000. from the State's Literary Fund for the erection of

The resources of the State banks (June 30, 1919) schools. Provision was- also made for a public

amounted to $177,814,000. The bank clearings in defender in cities of 50,000 people, for two years.

Richmond alone equaUed $4,875,418,760; deposits Judges were authorized to substitute jail sentences

$94,669,440; loans and discounts $102,049,839. The in misdemeanor cases. It was decided at that time

total valuation of real estate was $645,144^646, that the father and mother were entitled to the

divided as foUows: counties, $329,873,554; cities, custody,services, and earnings of legitimate children.

$315,271,112. Of the total the whites owned $612,- Mothers' pensions were adopted in 1918. In 1918

699,391; negroes, $32,475,255. The building opera- the legislature decided that marriage, when either

tions ot the city of Richmond were $4,118,688. party is a habitual criminal, idiot, or insane^ or is

The gross insurance risks written in Virginia in 1919 affected with specific diseases, is under the ctrcum-

were as follows: fire insurance $633,987,306; marine stance prohibited. In 1896 there were 525 divorces;

insurance $75,442,221; life insurance $435,668,431. in 1906, 1074; in 1916, 1886. The Federal Suffrage

The bonded debt of the State amounts (1919) amendment was defeated by the Virginia Legislature

$22,912,216; the assessed value of property for the on 12 February, 1920, but the Prohibition Amend-

same year was: real estate, $797,414,198; personal ment was ratified on 10 January, 1918. During the

$535,859,124; total $1,333,273,322. The total European War, an artillery camp was established at

mileage of the State is 4677. There are 12 electric Lee Mali (Camp Eustis), Camp Humphreys for the

companies with 433 miles of track extending between engineers at Accotink; and two embarkation camps

cities. ' at Newport News (Hill and Stuart). Virginia fur-

RELiQiON.—The church membership (1916) was nished to the United States Army 73,062 men (1.94

949,136^ of which the Baptists numbered 406,387; per cent). The Virginia members of the national

Methodists 258,785; Presbjrterian 52,564; Protestant guard were for the most part incorporated into the

Episcopal 33,593; Disciples 34,220; Lutherans 29th Division at Camp McClellan, Alabama; those

16,040. The Catholics are given as 36,671. The value of the National Army with the 80th Division at Camp

of all church property is $29,480,547; the debt Lee, Virginia. The summary of casulaties among the

$2j081,152. Virginia members of the American Expeditionary

For Catholic statistics see the articles on the Force is as follows: deceased, 71 officers, 1564 men;

dioceses of Richmond, Wheeling, and Wilminq- prisoners, 3 officers, 40 men; wounded, 196 officers,

TON. 4256 men.

Education. — The compulsory education law ap- plies to children between the ages of eight and twelve Visit ad Umiiia (cf. C. E., XV— 478a).-— If years and requires attendance for 16 weeks each the year appointed for the visit of a bishop to the Holy year. Two weeks' attendance at half time or night See falls wholly or partially within the first two years school equal one week at day school. The receipts of the episcopacv, he may omit the visit ana the from the permanent funds in 1918 were $106,749, diocesan report K>r that occasion. Bishops residing the receipts from appropriations and taxation were outside of Europe may limit their visits to every State: $2,486,456; county, $1,200,197; local, $3,747,- tenth year. Vicars apostolic, but not prefects 086; making the total revenue receipts $8,788,842. apostolic, are bound to visit Rome; however, if it is There was a balance on hand in the school year very inconvenient for them to do so personally they 1916-17 of $1,034,496. The total expenditure in the may fulfil their obligation by a procurator, even State for instruction in 1918-19 was $9,155,363. one residing in Rome. However, both vicars and< There are a total of 210,278 colored pupils enrolled prefects apostolic must send in quinquennial reports, in the public schools. Statistics of public schools giving a full account of their pastoral work, the condi- (1918) show a school population of 658,926; total tion of their missions, and whatever relates to the enrollment, 480,139; in high schools 29,157; average welfare of their people; the account must be signed by daily attendance 326,296 teachers 13,904; number of the vicar or prefect and by at least one member of school houses 6,743; school revenue $8,788,842; t^eir council. In addition they have to forward to