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stituted; such associations, for instance, as the tolic indult even when the. statutes do not ex- Holy Name Societv in Dominican chur^es, and the pressly recognize this power. Bona Mors or the Blessed Virgin's Sodality in Associations legitimately erected being thereby Jesuit churches. ecclesiastical moral personalities, have the right to

Associations must adopt congruous titles, and hold general meetings, pass rules, and elect dScers must have their rules examined and arproved by and administrators of their property, in accordance the Holy See or the local ordmaiy, the latter havmg with their statutes and canon law. Their general power to supervise and modify statutes that have meetings should be presided over by the bishop not hitherto received papal confirmation. All pious or his delegate, who, though he has no power of associations, even those erected by the Holy See, voting, has to approve or reject the officers elected, are ordinarily under the jurisdiction and supervision The ordinary or his delegate should be notified in of the local ordinary; but in case of those erected time about extraordinary general meetings, other- in virtue of an Apostolic privilege by exempt re- wise he may forbid them or annul their decrees, ligious in their churches, the ordinary must not For erave reasons the ordinary may suppress any interfere in matters of internal discipline or spiritual association, except those erected by the Holy See, direction. As a rule the chaplain and moderator of but the members have always the right of appeal an association are appointed by the local ordinary; to Rome against his action. A legitimately erected but when associations have been erected by exempt association may, unless the contrary is expressly religious in their own churches the local ordinary's stated in the statutes or the decree of erection, consent is needed only if the superior wishes to hold and administer temporal property, subject to appoint a secular priest as chaplain and moderator, the authority of the ordinaiy. The parish priest During their term of office they may bless and im- in whose parish it is established has, however, no pose the association's habit, insignia or scapulars, right to interefere in these matters, except with the Not infrequently the moderator also acts as chap- bishop's authorization. The association must render lain. ^ ' ^ , , each year an account of. its administration to the

When various pious associations assemble offi- ordinary. It may receive offerings and apply them cially with their crosses or banners and habits or to its pious purposes, but it must not solicit alms, insignia, the order of precedence is, as a general unless its statutes so provide or necessity urges, rule, third orders, archconfratemities, confratemi- and then only with the consent and according to ties, primary pious unions, other pious unions; but the directions of the local ordinaiy. If it should in processions of the Blessed Sacrament the Con- be necessary to make collections outside of the fraternity of the Holy Eucharist precedes the arch- diocese, the written consent both of the local ordi- confratemities. nary and of the bishop of the other place are

As a rule any Catholic may validly join a pious necessary, association, and if he does he shares in its rights, Vebmeehsch-Crcusen, Epitome juris canonid, 686-99. privileges and spiritual favors until he is lawfully

expelled. Non-Catholics and members of condemned AsBomptlon, Littlb Sisters op -the (cf. C. E., societies or those under notorious censure and in I-5d), founded in 1864 in Paris, France, by Rev. general public sinners cannot be received validly as Etienne Pemet, one of the first members of the associates. A person may be enrolled in several Congregation of the Augustinians of the Assump- associations, but not in two-third orders except in tion. Bom at Vellaxon (Haute Saone), 23 July, virtue of an Apostolic indult. Those who are 1824, Fr. Pemet made his vows 25 December, 1850, absent may not be enrolled in organically consti- and was ordained in 1858. The co-foundress was tuted associations; those who are present can be Antoinette Fage, who, as Mother Marie de Jesus enrolled only if they know and consent; by special in 1865, became the head of the little community permission of the Holy See, however, young chil- established in a modest flat, rue St. Dominique, dren and even the dead may be enrolled in certain They removed, 7 April, 1870, to the Convent of confraternities. A religious may join any pious Crenelle, which became and is now the mother- association, unless his superior judges that its regu- house of the congregation. In that year the com- lations do not harmonize with his religious rule and munity numbered 24 members. They followed the constitutions; but those who are bound by perpetual Rule of St. Augustine, and the founder gave them a or temporary vows cannot become members of third constitution according to their work. His predomi- orders, nor can they retain their membership after nant idea was to give the Sisters an intense interior their profession, if they have previously been en- life to animate their activity — daily Little Office rolled; however, if such persons relurn to the world of the Blessed Virgin in choir, two half-hours medi- lawfuUy, freed from their vows, their former mem- tation, two spiritual readings. In 1875, after exami- bership revives. nation of the constitution. Cardinal Guibert gave

If a person has been received into an association his approbation and encouragement to the woik. his name should be entered on the roll, and more- The Little Sisters nurse the sick poor in their own over, must be entered, under penalty of invalid homes, without regard to creed or nationality, ao- membership, if the association has been erected as cepting no remuneration of any kind. In addition a moral person. No payment, direct or indirect, for to caring for the patient, they keep the house reception must be exacted, except what the statutes clean and in order, orepare the meals for the family, authorize or is expressly allowed by the ordinary in dress the children and send them to school. This favor of the association under special circumstances, work of charity gives them a great influence in No lawiful member may be expelled unless for just the home, enables them to re-enforce the faith cause and in accordance with the statutes. Those and religious knowledge of the family, to bring who have joined forbidden societies or who are souls back to their religious duties, to prepare under a notorious censure or who have become adults for baptism, abjuration. Confirmation, and public sinners must be expelled, if they have failed First Communion; they also arrange for the legali- to amend their ways after being duly warned; they zation by the Church of marriages merely civiJ. have, however, a right to appeal to the ordinary against That the founder's ideal of "union through charity their expulsion. Local ordinaries and religious of the two classes of society might be realized, the superiors have power to dismiss members from asso- nuns are assisted in their work by Lady-Auxiliaries, ciations erected by religious in virtue of an Apos- called "Lady-Servants of the Poor," who take an