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relics of St. Rasso at Grafrath, to the church of the Holy Sepulchre (Vn^ers Herm Ruh) near Friedberg, and to Maria Siebeneich.

V. Ecclesiastical Akt .\xd Moxr.MEXTS. — Among the ecclesiastical monuments of the Diocese of Augsburg the catliedral holds first place. It was begim in the Roman style in 994, dedicated 1010, and remodeled, 1331-1431, into a Gothic church with five naves; it was then that the lofty east choir with its circle of chapels was added. The towers were in- creased in height in 14S8-S9 and 1564. Among the innumerable art treasures of tlie cathedral may be mentioned the vestments of St. Ulrich; the four altars with paintings by the elder Holbein illustrating the life of the Blessed Virgin; the celebrated bronze doors of the left lateral nave, adorned with remark- able reliefs, and dating from the first half of the eleventh century; the ancient stained windows, some of which go back to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the interesting tombs and slabs of the fourteenth and succeeding centuries, both in the cathedral itself and in the adjoining cloister, and many other objects of value and interest. The church of Sts. Ulrich and Afra, built 1467-1594. in the Gothic style, contains the tomb of St. Ulrich, the stone sarcophagus of St. Afra, the Fugger chapel with the memorial to Hans Fugger, and three magni- ficent altars in rococo style. The Late Gothic church of the Holy Cross was renovated, early in the eighteenth century, in florid Roman rococo style, and is a favourite place of pilgrimage. Among the chief ecclesiastical edifices outside the city of Augs- burg are the Romanesque basilicas of Altenstadt, Ursberg, Thierhaupten; the Gothic churches of Kais- heim, Dinkelsbulil, Donauworth, Landsberg; the ancient abbey-churches of Andeclis (very rich in relics and costly reliquaries), Benediktbeuren, Dies- sen, Fvlssen, Kempten, Ottobeuren, and Wessobrunn, all restored and ornamented in sumptuous barocco or rococo style.

Kh.^mm, Hierarchia Augustana chronologice tripartiia (Augs- burg. 1709-19); Steiner, Synodi Dicectsis Angustance iMin- delheim, 1766); Steixer, Acta seiecta ecctesice Augustana; (.\ugsburg, 17S5); Vefth, Bibliotheca Augustana (Augsbxirg, 1785-96): Braun, Geschichte der Bischofe von Augsburg (Augsburg, 1813-15); Id., H istorisch-topographische Beschrei- bung der Diozese Augsburg (.\ugsburg, 1823); Id., Die Dom- kirchc zu Augsburg (Augsburg. 1829); Monumenta ephcopalus Augustani, in Monumenta Boici (Munich. 1841-47) XXXIII- XXXV; Steichele, Beitrage zur Geschichte des Bistums Augs- burgs (Augsburg, 1849-53); Id., Archiv fur die Geschichte des Bistums Augsburg (.Augsburg, 1856-60); Id., Das Bistum Augs- burg historisch und statisti^ch beschrieben (vol. II-VI, Augsburg, 1864-1906; vols. V and VI by Schroder; vol. I has not yet appeared in print); Hopp, Pfriindeslatistik des Bistums Augs- burg (.\ugsburg, 1906); Bauman"X, Geschichte des Algdu (Kemp- ten. 1880-95); many original manuscripts in Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins fUr Schwaben und Ncuburq (.\ugsburg, 1874 sqq.; 1903); Jahresbencht des Historischen Vtreins Dil- lingen (Dillingen, 1888 sqq.). For the history of the city of .Augsburg see: Stetten (.Augsburg, 1745-58); Meyer. Vr- kundenbuch der Stadt Augsburg (Augsburg, 1874-78); Roth, Augsburger Reformationsgeschichte 1517-27 (Munich, 1881); Werner (.Augsburg, 1900, with details on earlier literatiu-e). For the history of the fine arts in Augsburg see Merz, Die Bildwerke an den Erzturen des Augsburger Doms (Stuttgart. 1885); Buff, Augsburg in der Renaissaneezeii (Bamberg, 1893); Kempf, All-Augsburg (100 plates, Berlin, 189S); Schro- der, Die Domkirche zu Augsburg (.\ugsburg, 1900); Friesen- EGGER. Die Sankt-Vlrichskirche in Augsburg (.\ugsburg, 1900); Weis-Liebersdorf, Das Jubetjahr 1500 in der Augsburger Kunst (Munich, 1901); Riehl, .4ufls6urj; (Leipzig, 1903). Joseph Lins.

Augsburg, Religious Pe.^ce of. See Reform.*.-


Augsburg, Synods of. — From the time of St. Boniface (d. 754), especially during periods of earnest re\nval of religious and ecclesiastical life, sj-nods were frequently convened by the bislio)3s of Germany, and sometimes by those of inch\ndu.'il ecclesiastical provinces. .\s the German bishops were, on tlie one hand, princes of the empire, and the emperor was, tm the other, the superior protector of the Roman Church, these synods came to have no little im-

portance in the general ecclesiastical and political development of Western Christendom. Two general imperial synods were held in Augsburg. The first. con\ened in August, 952, through the efforts of Em- peror Otto the Great, provided for the reform of abuses in civil and ecclesiastical life. Frederick, .\rchbishop of Mainz, presided, and three arch- bishops and twentj- bisliops of Germany and northern Italy took part. Eleven canons were i^ro- mulgated concerning ecclesiastical life and other matters of church discipline. A similar synod, con- vened by -Ajmo, Archbishop of Cologne (27 October. 1062), was occupied with the internal conditions of the empire and the attitude of the Church of Ger- many towards the schism of Cadalus, anti-pope dur- ing the reign of Alexander II. The diocesan sj-nods of Augsburg correspond as a rule with the sjTiodal system as carried out in other parts of Germany. We find in tliis diocese, as elsewhere in Germany, the synodi per villas, convened under the influence of the Carlovingian capitularies. They were visitation- sjmods, held by the bishop assisted by the arch- deacon and the local lord or baron (Gaugraf). Their purpose was inquisitorial and judicial. After the time of St. tlrich (923-973), and in close relation to the system of provincial councils, diocesan sjTiods were held at stated times, chiefly in connection with matters of ecclesiastical administration (legalizing of important grants and privileges, etc.), and the settlement of disputes, .\fter the thirteenth cen- turj' these diocesan sjTiods assumed more of a legislative character; decrees were issued regulating the lives of both ecclesiastics and lajTnen, and church discipline was secured by the publication of diocesan statutes. The earliest extant are of Bishop Friedrich (1309-31). These diocesan synods fell into decay during the course of the fourteenth century.

In consequence of decrees of the Council of Basle the synods of the Diocese of Augsburg rose again to importance, so that after the middle of the fif- teenth century they were once more frequently held, as for example: by the able Bishop Peter von Schauenburg (1424-69) and his successor, Johann von Werdenburg, also by Friedrich von Zoilem (1486) and Heinrich von Liechtenau (1506). The two Bishops Christopher von St.adion (1517-43) and Otto Truchsess von Waldburg (1543-73) made use of diocesan sjmods (1517, 1520, 1543 in Dillingen, and 1536 in Augsburg) for the purpose of checking the progress of the Reformation tlirough the im- provement of ecclesiastical life. At a later period there were but few ecclesiastical a.ssemblies of this kind; as early as 1567, the sj-nod of that year, con- vened for the purpose of carn,-ing out the reforms instituted by the Council of Trent, shows signs of the decline of the sjTiod as a diocesan institution. The Bishops of Augsburg were, moreover, not only the ecclesiastical superiors of their diocese, but after the tenth centurj' possessed the Hcgalia, the right of holding and administering royal fiefs with concomi- tant jiirisdiction. The right of coinage was obtaineil by St. I'lrich. At a later period disputes were frequent between the bishops and the civic authori- ties, which culminated in an agreement (13S9) by which the city was made practically independent of the episcopal authority. (See Augsburg.)

Hartzheim, Concilia Germania (Cologne. 1749): Hefele. Conciliengesch. (2d ed. Freiburg. 1873); Steixer, Synodi dia-c. Augustana: (1766): Steichele, Dos Bistum Augsburg historisch und slatiitisch beschrieben (Augsburg, 18(>4); Schmid in Kirchenlei., I, 1651-55.


Augury. See Divination.

Augusta, a titular see of Cilicia in Asia Minor, whose episcopal Ust (36.3-434) is given in Gams (4.35). Several cities bore the same name in Roman antiquity, some of which are yet flourishing, e. g. Augusta