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ingly Protestant. The relations between the various lingen; the Diocesan Seminarj- for boys at Dillingen; religious denominations are in general friendly and St. Stephen "s Catholic House of Studio at Augsburg, peaceable. For the work of sacred ministni- the dio- under the direction of the Benedictines, which in- oese is di\"ided into 40 deaneries (1 city deanery at eludes a Lyceum, a classical Gymnasium, a royal

Augsburg, and 39 rural deaneries), with S62 seminarj- of studies and an institute for higher educa- parisucC, 31 parochial curacies. 16 curacies, 226 bene- tion; there are besides about forty students of the fices, 6 preaching-offices (Pradikaturen), 227 chap- Diocese of Augsburg who dwell in the Georgianimi

laincies. In general each parish is complete and at Munich and attend the courses of the University,

independent, but in the mountainous southern The state, or communal, institutions of higher

section there are many parishes to which are at- studies for boys number 2S in the Diocese of Augs-

tached from fifty to a hundred dependent chmrhes burg: 5 gymnasia. 1 Rcalgiimnaxiiim. 1 seminary of

(Filiakirchen). The cathedral chapter consists of studies. 5 Fro/ymnasia. 2 Latin schools, 7 7?ea/^Aufen,

the provost of the cathedral, a dean of the cathedral, 3 agricultural winter schools, 1 Reatschute with I.atin, S canons, and 6 vicars. In 1907 the clergj' of the 1 normal school, and 2 preparatory schools. We

diocese numbered 1,439: S15 parish priests and paro- must also mention the Cassianeum in Donauworth.

chial curates, 49 parochial \-icars. 11 curates, 73 a CathoUc institute of pedagogy, which includes a

beneficed clergymen. 53 \'icars of benefices. ISO training-school, a publishing house for books and

chaplains and assistant priests. 49 prebendaries and periodicals, a printing press, and other appurtenances,

clerical professors (not including the professors of In all of these institutions Catholic instruction is

the Benedictine Abbey of St. Stephen in Augsburg); given to Catholic students by Catholic clergymen. 74 priests temporarily stationed in the diocese, 95 IV. Charitable Ls-STiTrTioxs. — The charitable

regulars, 40 priests engaged in other dioceses or on institutions of the diocese are for the most part the

missions. Of the rehgious orders of men there are property of the ci%-ic parishes or the vmions (Vereine).

the following establishments: Benedictines, 3 (Augs- or local associations; they are administered, however,

burg, Andechs, Ottobeuren I. with 33 priests, 6 clerics, mostly by rehgious communities to whom is also

56 lay brothers ; Mission Society of St. Benedict. 1 confided the care of the sick, or children, and of

(St. Ottilien). with 36 priests (12 at present outside the aged. There are 37 hospitals, 24 infirmaries, 12

the diocese), 31 clerics. 117 lay brothers; Franciscans, protectories, 2 asylums for children, S orphanages,

3. with 7 priests and 22 lay brothers; Capuchins, 5. 3 institutions for the deaf and dumb, 12 houses for

with 2S priests, IS clerics, and 37 lay brothers; the poor and orphans. 3 poorhouses. 1 hospital for

Brothers of Mercv, 6. with 4 priests and .54 lay priests, 1 home for invalids, 3 institutions for ser-

brothers. Altogether there are IS estabUshments vants under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin

conducted by the male orders, with lOS priests, 55 (Marienanstallen). 1 House of St. Anne {Annastift)

clerics, and 2S6 lay brothers. Far more numerous for the factory girls in Augsburg, 1 House of St.

are the female orders and religious congregations; Elizabeth for incurables. 5 institutions for various

they number 226 establishments and branches, with other purposes (e. g. the Ivneippianura in Worishofen).

2.S15 members. They are: Sisters of Mercy of St. One Cathohc institution of Augsburg deserves spe-

Vincent de Paul. 59 houses, with 392 sisters; Fran- cial mention: the Fuggerei. founded in 1519 by three

ciscans. with their mother-houses at Augsburg. Dil- brothers (Ulrich, Georg, and Jakob) of the Fuggeis.

lingen. Kaufbeuren. and Mindelheim. 71 establish- It consists of an extensive block of 53 houses with

ments, with 735 sisters; Arme Franziskanerinnen 106 apartments; in accordance with the conditions

with mother-house at Mallersdorf , 34 establisliments, of the foundation these must be let at a ver\- small

with 171 sisters; Engli»:he Fraulein (English Ladies), rent to indigent people. It is a noble and diuBble

11 convents with 311 ladies, 160 lay sisters, and 43 memorial of the spirit of Cliristian charity that

novices; Dominican nuns. 11 convents with 271 choir abounded in the Catholic Middle Ages. In recent

sisters, 17 lay sisters, and 36 novices; Poor School times other works of Cliristian charity have been

Sisters, 21 foundations with 1(56 sisters, Elisabelh- inaugurated. The good priest and superintendent

erinnen (Sisters of St. Elizabeth), 4 foundations of studies (Regens). Father Wagner of Dillingen. es-

with 41 sisters and 5 novices; Sisters of the Most tablished many institutions for the deaf. dumb, and

Holy Redeemer with their mother-house at Ober- blind; Father Ringeisen. paiisli pric--=t of Ursberg, es-

bronn in Alsace, 61 foundations with 24 sisters; Cis- tablished there the Sbters of St. Joseph for the exercise

tercian nuns. 1 convent with 29 choir nuns, 15 lay of every form of charity. For aged and infirm priests

sisters, and 2 novices; Mission Sisters of St. Benedict, there exists a fund with 1.277 subscribers and a

1 convent with 65 sisters and 9 novices; Sbters of reserve of 1,550,(XX) marks (S3S7.500). There is

St. Joseph of Ursberg. 7 foimdations with 231 sisters also an association for the support of infirm priests.

and 92 novices. with 792 members and a fund of 26.000 marks

in. Educ.ition'. — ^As the primary schools in Bava- ($6,500). Prominent among the numerous social-

ria are the property of the local civic corporation and political and religious associations of the diocese are

imder State control, there are no parochial schools in 16 Catholic apprentices" unions {Lehrling.n'ereine) . the

the strict sense of the word. According to the Bava- local union in .\ugsburg maintaining its orni home

rian Constitution of ISIS nothing more is assured for apprentices; 49 Catholic journeymen's unions

to the Church tlian the direction of religious instruc- (Geselienvereine) , 4 Unions of St. Joseph; .52 Catholic

tion and the surveillance of religious life in the school. workingmen"s unions; 19 Catholic students' clubs: 3

She exercises this right in 1 ,074 primary schools of Catholic clubs for working women, with 504 mem-

the Diocese of Augsburg, by means of 6 ecclesiastical bers; 7 CathoUc "Patronages for working people; the

county (Bezirk) school-inspectors and 50 ecclesias- ITrich-union for the support of seminaries; the Men's

tical district school-inspectors. However, in many Catholic Association, the Christian Peasants' League;

of the girls' schools (Sladchenschulen) the direction the Cecilian Club; St. Man.""s Protectorj" for girls;

of studies is confined entirely to religious societies the Yoimg Women's Association, and the Association

under State inspection. Thus the Poor School Sis- of Christian Mothers. Annual pilgrimages give \isi-

ters have charge of the studies in 19 schools, the ble evidence of the Aigorous religious life of the dio-

Franciscans in 35, the Dominican nuns in 11. the cese. Such pilgrimages are those of the Holy (?ross

Sisters of St. Joseph of Ursberg in 3; the English (11 May) and to the tomb of .St. TTrich at Augsburg

Ladies are excellent teachers for the higher educa- (4 JulyK There are also processions to the holy

tion of women, and conduct 11 institutes for girls, mountain of .\ndechs during the rogation daj-s. and

For the training of priests there are the Lyceum to the mon.isterj- of Lechfeld since the year of the

and the Diocesan Seminarj- for ecclesiastics at Dil- cholera (1854). Other pilgrimages are those to the