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leality of the martyrdom of the three missionaries, more suitable edifices will be erected.

Shea, Lije n; Isaac Jogues. S.J. (.New York. 18fi2); Jesuit Relations, passim; Pilgrim of Our Lady of Martyrs (New York); Annals of the Shrine (New York); Wynne, .4 Shrine in the Afohawk Valley (New York, 1905).

T. J. Campbell.

Aurispa, Giov.vxni, a famous Italian humanist and collector of Greek manuscripts, b. about 1369 at Xoto, in Sicily; d. at Ferrara in 1459. It is not known where he first studied. In 1418 he went to Constantinople to learn Greek and to collect codices. So industrious was he that he was accused to the Greek emperor of despoiling the city of books. He returned to Venice in 1423 with 238 volumes of classical authors, purchased at Constantinople. Among his treasures were the celebrated "Codex Laurentianus" (seven plays of Sophocles, six of Jischylus, Apollonius's " Argonaut ica") of the tenth century, the Iliad, Demosthenes, Plato, Xenophon, etc. The next year Aurispa went to Bologna, where he became professor of Greek at the university. .As a teacher he was not very successful. Thence he was invited to Florence, where he also held the chair of Greek. Later he went to Ferrara. In 1441 he was appointed secretary to Pope Eugene IV. Six years later Pope Nicholas V reappointed him to the same post. Besides being a tireless collector of manuscripts, Aurispa was a poet of some merit. His published works include letters, epigrams, and an elegy.

VoiGT, Die TTiederbetebung dea klassischen Allerthums (Berlin, 1893); Sabb.idini, Biograjia documentata di Giovanni Aurispa (Noto. 1890).

Edmund Burke.

Aurora Lucis Rutilat. — This is one of the so- called Ambrosian hynms, but its author is unknown. It has been revised and separated into three hymns for the Roman Breviarj-. The first sixteen Unes form the hpnn for Lau(is from Low Sunday to the Ascension, "and begin in the revised form, Aurora Coehan Purpurat. There are many English versions in use among Protestants. Dr. J. M. Neale's trans- lation begins " Dawn purples all the east with light ". The hjmm " Tristes Erant Apostoli " (lines 17-32 of the original text) is in the Office, Common of Apostles and Evangelists for paschal time at the first and second Vespers and .Matins. This hj-mn has also been translated into English. The Gregorian melody is in the third mode and may be found in the "Ves- perale Romanum ". Lines 33 to the end of the ancient hjaiin form " Paschale Mundo Gaudium," the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Apostles in paschal time. Among the English versions, besides Dr. Neale's, are those of J. A. Johnston in his "EngUsh Hymnal" (1S52), "With sparkling rays morn decks the sky"; E. Caswall, "LjTa Cathblica" (1849), "The dawn was purpling o'er the sky"; J. D. Cham- bers, "Lauda Syon" (1857), "Light's very morn its beams displays ".

BXuMER. Ges'chichte des Breviers (Freiburg, 1895); Jcllan, Diet, of Hymnology (New York, 1893).

Joseph Otten, Ausculta Fill, a letter addressed 5 December, 1.301, by Pope Boniface VIII to Philip the Fair, King of France, Philip was at enmity with the pope. L'nder pretext of his royal rights, he con- ferred benefices, and appointed bishops to sees, re- gardless of papal authority. He drove from their sees those bishops who, in opposition to his will, remained faitliful to the pope. This letter is couched in firm but paternal terms. It points out the evils the king has brought to his kingdom, to Church and State; invites him to do penance and to mend his ways. It was unlieeded by the king, and was soon followed bv the famous Bull "I'nam Sanctam ". The complete text of this Bull in found in the Bullarium Magnum (I.uxemburg, 1730), IX. 121 sqq.; ef. Hefele- KsoPFLER, Conciliengeschichte (Freiburg, 1890), \'I, 324-333;

TosTi, Sloria di Bonifacio VIII (.Monte Cas.sino, 1840;: Junc .MAN.N-, Dissertat. Selectie in Hist. eccl. (Ratisbon, 188(5), \1, V notificatu Bonif. VIII; Boutaric, La France sous Philippe le Bel (Paris, 1861); Finke, Aus den Tagen Bonifuz VIII (Miinster, 1902); cf. Revue des quest, historiques (Oct., 1903). M. O'RlORDAN.

Ausonius, Decimus M.vgnus, a professor and poet b. about .K. D. 310; d., probably, about .\. D. 394. The son of a physician of Bordeaux, he studied first in that city, then at Toulouse, with his uncle .Emilius Magnus .\rborius. The latter having gone to teach in Constantinople, .Ausonius returned to Bordeaux, where he became professor of grammar, and later on of rhetoric. Between 364 and 368, Valentinian I invited him to Trier to teach his son Gratian. In 368 and 369 Ausonius accompanied the emperor on the expedition against the Alemanni, and re- ceived a young Swabian, Bissula, as his share of the booty. The emperors overwhelmed him with honours, and made liim first Prefect of the Gauls, then Prefect of the West conjointly with his son Hesperius (between August, 378, and July, 379). In 379 he became consul. After the assassination of Gratian, his benefactor (383), Ausonius moved to Bordeaux, where he Hved among many admiring friends, and wrote a great deal of poetry. He lived through almost the whole of the fourth cen- tury. The writings of Ausonius are generally short, and they form a miscellaneous collection which is divided into two groups: —

I. Occ.\siox.\L Works. — (1) "Epigrams": short poems on different subjects, often translated from the Greek Anthologj'. (2) "ParentaUa": thirty eulo- gies on deceased relatives, with some occasional ex- pressions of personal sentiment (about 379). (3) " Commemoratio professorum Burdigalensium " : a collection like the preceding, giving an idea of a uni- versity in the fourth century (after 389). (4) " Mo- sella ": a description of the River Moselle and the countrj' through which it flows, written while travel- ling from Bingen to Trier (c. 371). Tliis poem has a certain local and archsological interest. (.)) Charm- ing poems relating to Bissula (after 368). (6) Many brief poems, which .Ausonius called eclogues or " Epyl- lia"; paschal-time prayers (368); " Epicedion ": dirge on his father's death (d. 378); advice to his grandson (about 380); " Cupido crucifixus "; descrip- tion of a painting in a dining-room at Trier, which rep- resented Cupid as tormented in hell by the women who pursued him on earth, etc. (7) " Gratiarum actio dicta domino Gratiano Augusto ", in which .Au- sonius expresses in prose his thanks for having been made consul. This was read at Trier in 379, and is made up of flowers of rhetoric and conventional flat- teries. (8) " Ephemeris": the account of daily du- ties, from morning to night; a fragment (379). In this work is foimd a morning prayer composed of Biblical expressions in which the doctrine of the Trin- ity is set forth in detailed formulip directed against the heresies of the times. (9) " Letters ": twenty-five epistles, mostly in verse. The most interesting are addressed to St. Paulinus of Nola (393) and in them Ausonius bewails a conversion that deprives the State and literature of the benefit of such a brilliant mind, and tries to lead the saint back to worldly life at Rome. This correspondence lays before us two ideals of life; it expresses in clear colours the views which at that time were in conflict with each other, and di- vided society. (10) " Priefatimjculae": prefaces and envois to poems.

XL School Exercises and Fragments. — These are chiefly mnemonic verse: " Caesares", on the Roman emperors; consular annals; "Ordo nobilium urbium ", eulogies on cities, beginning with Rome and ending with Bordeaux (after 388); Eclogs ", a collection of mnemonic verses, treating of trees, the months, the calendar, weights, etc.; " Perioch® " (Contents), prosa headings for the Iliad and the Odyssey. It is doubt-