with the white man and his vices. The last Tas- manian aboriginal died in 1S76. In New South Wales and ^'ictoria, the dwindling remnants of the native tribes are mostly settled upon reserves imder State control. The most permanent and successful missions to the aborigines are those in the Dioceses of Perth and Geraldton (Western Australia).
VIII. C.\THOLic Literature. — Under the penal slaverj' that long prevailed over a part of Austraha. intellectual and moral advancement was subordi- nated to the two central ideas of punishment and money-getting. For some five decades from the date of the first colonization there was scarcelj- such a thing as a cultured class; the struggle for existence "was generally keen among the free settlers in a \'irgin •coimtrj-; and education, seldom more than primarj', was mainly in the hands of con\'ict teachers and of convict tutors assigned to private families. The literary gloom of Australian penal ser\-itude before the days of the '48 men was lit up by two non-Cath- oUc Irish con\-icts. Edward O'Shaughnessy, a gifted poet and political writer, and George Waldron (better kno^sTi as George Harrington), the prince of modem pickpockets, whose romantic career has found fame even in the pages of the Dictionarj' of National Biography". To Austrahan CathoUcs, however, it is especially gratifj-ing that one of the first contributions of a writer of their faith and countrj- dealt a severe blow at the eon\-ict system; this work was Dr. UUathorne's heart-rending pam- phlet, "The Horrors of Transportation. Time, free immigration, prosperity, higher instruction, more extended educational facilities, and the play of representative institutions have since then com- bined to develop in the "Land of Dawning" a rich general Uterature, in many respects sui generis, and marked, especially on its " hghter " side, bj- a certain weird melancholy wliich. according to Marcus Clarke, is the predominant feature of Australian scenery. In the literarj' development of the Commonwealth Catholic writers have borne an honourable part. The following list is made up exclusively of works produced by Catholic authors having at the time of writing a domicile in Australia.
History and Biography. — UUathorne, "The Hor- rors of Transportation", and "The Australian Mis- sion"; Kenny, "The Cathohc Church in .Australia to the Year 1840"; Therrj', "Comparison of the Oratorj' of the House of Commons Thirty Years Ago and at the Present Day (1856)", "Reminiscences of Thirty Years' Residence in New South Wales"; Flanagan. "Historj' of Xew South Wales"; Tenison Woods. " Historj' of the Discoverj' and Exploration of AustraUa"; Finn ("Gany-Owen"), "The Chronicles •of Early Jlelboume"; George CoUingridge (whose brother Arthur originated the real art life of the mother-state by founding the Art Society of Xew South Wales and the classes connected theremth), "Historj' of Australian Discoverj'"; Mennell. "Dic- tionarj'of .\ustralian Biographj'"; Hogan. "The Irish in .-Vustraiia"; Kelsh, "Memoir of Bishop Willson". The principal work written bj' Cardinal Moran in Austraha is his monumental "Historj' of The Cath- ohc Church in .\ustralasia ". Carr (Archbishop of Melbourne), "Fifty j'ears of Progress"; Bj'rne, " Historj' of the Catholic Church in South Aastralia " (two small vols, issued); Clearj', "The Orange Society"; Gray, " .\ustralasia. Old and New"; Don- ohoe (Arthur Caj'U), "Historj' of Botanj' Baj'".
Apologetic and Ascetic Literature. — The most note- worthj' contributions to Australian Catholic apolo- getic literature are those of Cardinal Moran, " Letters on the Anglican Reformation ", and ' The Reunion of Christendom"; and of Archbishop Carr. "The Origin of the Church of England". "The Church and the Bible", "The Primacj' of the Roman Pontiff", and "Letters in Replj' to Dr. R(ntoul", the charac-
teristic feature of which works is the frequencj' and effectiveness of their appeals to the writings of Prot- estant historians and chvines; Hall, " Who translated the Bible?" A multitude of minor polemical publications on questions of historj', missions, doc- trine, statistics, sociahsm. education, medico-moral subjects, religion and science, etc., have appeared from time to time from the pens of Cardinal Moran, Archbishop Carr. Dr. UUathorne (" Replv to Judge Barton"). Fathers W. Kellv, J. O'Mallev. and E. J. Masterson. S.J.. the Rev. W. Barrj',' D.D.. the Rev. M. Watson, S.J., Benjamin Hoare. the Rev. P. O'Doherty, the Rev. M. Barrett, and others; Bj-me, "True Wisdom" (translated from Thamas a Kempis); "Letters of a Mother to Her Children" and "Sketches of the Lives of Young Saints", books compiled bj' Loretto Nuns; Huault, "The Mother of Jesus". Devotional manuals have been pubhshed by the Fathers M. Watson and J. Rj'an. S.J., and a praj'erbook bj' the Austrahan Cathohc Truth Societj'. This useful organization (established at the Second Austrahan Cathohc Congress in 1904) is doing excellent se^^'ice bj' its pubhcations. which embrace nearlj' everj' department of Catholic lit- erature. A place of honour in Australian apologetic and general literature is rightlj' due to the two volumes containing the Proceedings of the Australa- sian Catholic Congresses held at Sj'dney (1900) and Melbourne (1904).
Physical Science, Law, Polilics, etc. — The foremost names in geological science in AustraUa are those of the Rev. JuUan E. Tenison Woods. F.G.S.. and the Rev. J. Milne Curran. F.G.S. Father Woods was author of "Geological Observations in South AustraUa", "Geology of Portland", and "North Australia and its Phj'sical Geographj-". (Mennell saj's of this author: " His contributions to the pages of scientific journals and the proceecUngs of learned societies were numerous and valuable. ") Father Curran is the author of "The Geologj- of Sj'dney and the Blue Mountains" and "Quantitative Analj'sis". T. A. Coghlan (Agent-General for New South Wales, Fellow of the Roj'al Statistical Societj') is the Mulhall of AustraUan statistical science. The most important of his manj' publications wliile he was Statistician of New South Wales were: "The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales" and "The Seven Colonies of Australasia", both of which went through numerous editions. His successor as statistician of the mother-state is W. H. Hall, author of "The Official Year-Book of New South Wales". W. H. .\rcher. K.S.G.G.. pubhshed sundry statistical works while Registrar-General of Victoria in its j'oung and strenuous daj's, and for twenty-five J'ears Dr. E. S. Hall compiled and published the %'ital statistics of Tasmania. Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) Gavan Duffy was the author of a "Guide to the Land Law of 1862". which law was passed bj' a coalition Ministrj* in which he held the portfoUo of Lands. Other legal textbooks were written by Frank Gavan Duffj' (son of Sir Charles), Judges Casej' and Quinlan. M. Brennan, Bernard O'Dowd, N. G. Power, and J. Hood. Benjamin Hoare. author of "Preferential Trade", ranks high in pohtical circles as an authoritj' on protective tariffs. John D. Fitzgerald, an author of recognized abilitj' on munici- pal reform, has written " Greater Sj'dnej' and Greater Newcastle". Frederick J. Bloomfield did the Aus- tralasian work in " Webster's Dictionarj' . Helen K. Jerome wrote a work on Japan. The Rev. Juhan E. Tenison Woods compiled an "AustraUan Bibliog- raphj'"; and useful educational works have issued from his pen and from those of Fathers P. J. O'Mara and W. Kellj'. S.J., and of J. W. Foster-Rogers. Archbishop O'Reilly (Adelaide) has written pamph- lets on music, a subject on which he is an authority of AustraUan reputation.