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Fiction. — Daniel E. Deniehy, lawj'er, statesman, journalist, will be best remembered for his clever skit, " How I Became Attorney-General of Barataria ", which was famous in its day, and is still as readable as ever. James Francis Hogan published "An Australian Christmas Collection" of colonial stories and sketches. Ambrose Pratt is the author of "The Great Push Experiment", "Franks, Duellist", and "Three Years with Thunderbolt". Among other Australian Cathohc writers of fiction whose work has appeared in book form are the following: Miss Tennyson, Roderick Quinn, Laura Archer (a collection of Queensland tales), F. M. Korner (pen name, "George Garnet"), a Loretto nun (author of " I Never Knew "), the Rev. P. Hickey (" Innisfail "). "Australian Wonderland" is a cleverly written book for children, in wliich two sisters (one of them a Sis- ter of Mercy) collaborated. Newspaper and periodi- cal literature has also been enriched with some excel- lent work in fiction by Australian Catholic writers.

Poetry. — Among the poets, two Irish singers, "Eva" of the Nation (Mrs. Kevin Izod O'Doherty) and "Thomasine", are now (1907) passing the evening of their lives in humble retirement in Queens- land. Roderick Flanagan (the historian of New South Wales) published in liis day a volume of verse. ^'ictor J. Daley was a gifted and prolific verse-writer, but his only published work is " At Dawn and Dusk ". John Farrell, for a time editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph, was the author of "How He Died, and Other Poems". In 1897 he wrote a "Jubilee Ode" wliich was pronounced to be finer than Kipling's "Recessional" as a piece of national stock-taking. Roderick Quinn has written "The Higher Tide", and "The Circling Hearths"; Edwin J. Brady, a poet of the sea and wharfside, "The Way of Many Waters"; Bernard O'Dowd. " Dawnward" and "Dar- rawill of the Silent Land"; Cornelius Moj-nihan, " Feast of the Bunya, An Aboriginal Ballad ", with a preface containing curious historical, legendarj-, and ethnological lore regarding the Queensland blacks; the Rev. W. Kelly, S.J., three convent dramas in blank verse; J. Hood, "Land of the Fern"; John B. O'Hara, "Songs of the South" (2d series), " Sonnets, Odes, and Lyrics " ; the Rev. M. Wat^ son, S.J., a series of seven handsomely illustrated Christmas booklets in verse which have gone through many editions. Volumes of verse have also been pub- lished by Marion Miller ("Songs From the Hills"), and Rena Wallace (" A Bush Girl's Songs "). Some meritorious work by Australian Catholic poetic writers (including various odes, etc., by the Rev. J. J. Malone) has not appeared in separate form.

Catholic Journalism in Australia had a long and thorny road to travel before it reached assured suc- cess. Beginning with " The Chronicle " (founded in Sydney, in 1839), the way was strewn with failures, which, however, helped to form the steps leading others to better things. The existing Catholic newspapers and periodicals of Australia, with their dates of foundation, are, Weekly: Sydney, N. S. W., " The Freeman's Journal " (the oldest existing news- paper in Australia, foimded and first edited by Arch- deacon McEncroe in 1850); and " The Catholic Press " (1895); Melbourne, Victoria, " The Advocate " (1S6S), "The Tribune" (1900); Brisbane, Queensland, " The Australian " (founded by Dr. O'Quinn in 1878), " The Age " (1892); Adelaide, South Austraha, " The South- ern Cross" (1SS9); Perth, W. A., "The W. A. Rec- ord " (1874); Launceston, Tasmania, "The Monitor" (foimded in 1894 by amalgamating " The Catholic Stanclard " of Hobart, and The Morning Star " of Laimceston). — Monthly: Melbourne. The Australian Messenger " (1887); " The Austral Light " (an eccle- siastical property since 1899); Sydney, "The Annals of Our Lady". — Quarterly and Anmtal: "The .Aus- tralasian Catholic Record " (founded by Cardinal Moran, in Sydney, in 1894); "The Madonna" (Mel- bourne, 1897); "The Garland of St. Joseph" (1906). A useful " CathoUc Almanac and Family .Annual " is pubhshed for the Diocese of Maitland. Illustrated scholastic annuals are also issued by most of the Cath- olic colleges for boys, and by some of the secondary schools for girls. — In size, literary quality, successful management, and influence, the Catholic newspapers and magazines of Australia easily outrival the rest of the religious press in the Commonwealth. Many Catholic names of note in the political, judicial, literary, and scientific history of Australia were, for a time at least, associated with the religious or secular press of the country. Among them may lie mentioned: Sir Charles Ciavan Duffy; the Right Hon. William Bede Dalley, P.C. Q.C.; the Hon. Jolm Hu- bert Plunkett, Q.C., M.L.C.; Sir Roger Therry; Rich- ard Sullivan (brother of A. M. and T. D. Sullivan); Judges Therry, Real, Power, O'Connor, Ca.sey, Hey- don, and Quinlan; the Hon. Edward Butler, Q.C., M.L.C., and his brother, Thomas Butler; E. W. O'Sulli- van; Sir Jolin O'Shannassy, K.C.M.G.; the Hon. Sir Patrick Jennings, K.C.M.G., LL.D., M.L.C.; Edward Whitty, the brilliant Anglo-Irishman, who ended his days in Melbourne; William A. Duncan, C.M.G.; Rod- erick Flanagan; Daniel E. Deniehy; Philip Mennell, F.R.G.S.; Jolin Farrell; Victor J." Daley; the Rev. Julian E. Tenison Woods; the Hon. J. V. O'Loghlen; the Hon. Hugh Mahon; J. F. Hogan; Benjamin Hoare; Roderick and P. E. Quinn; F. J. Bloomfield; -Am- brose Pratt; Helen K. Jerome; John Hughes, K.C.S.G.; John Gavan Duffy; Frank Leverrier (noted as a scientist); Kenneth McDonall; — Nicholson; Frank and Martin Donohoe; Ernest Hoben; C. Brennan; T. Courtney; and others. Phil May first won fame as a caricaturist in the columns of an illustrated weekly published in Sydney. A number of able lay and clerical writers are associated with the Catholic newspapers and periodicals of Australia.

The Australian Handbook (various dates): the Year-Books of the various States; Coghlan, Wealth and Progress of New South Wales (various dates), and The Seven Colonies of .Aus- tralasia (various dates); Acta et Decreta of the Australian Plenary Synods of 1885 and 1895; Historical Records of New South Wales: Bennett. South Australian Almanac (1840); Kenny, The Catholic Church in Australia to the Year 1S40 ; Flanagan, History of New South Wales (1862); Therry, New South Wales and Victoria (1863); The National History of England (1877); May, Constitutional History of England (1882); Epitome of the Official History of New South Wales (1883): BONWICK, The Port Phillip Settlement (1883). and The First Twenty Years of .Australia (1883); Fenton, History of Tasmania (1884); Dilke, Greater Britain (1885): McCarthy, History of Our Own Times (1887); Hogan, The Irish in .Aus- tralia (1888); Sutherland, History of .Australia (18881; Ldmholtz, Among Cannibals (1890); Hutchinson, Aus- tralasian Encyclopedia (1892); Mennell, Dictionary of Australian Biography (1892); Britton, History of New South Wales from the Records (1894); Mohan, History of the Catholic Church in .Australasia; Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates (1897); DAVrrr. Life and Progress in .Australasia (1898); Coghlan, Statistics of the Seren Colonies of Australasia from 1(161 to 1S99 (1900); Jose, History of .Australia (1901); Cogh- L\N .^nd Ewing, Progress of Australasia in the Nineteenth Century (1903): Howitt, The Native Tribes of South-East .Australia (1904); Spencer and Gillen, The Native Tribes of Central .Australia (1904). and The Northern Tribes of Central .Australia (1904); Hall, States of Australia and New Zealand (1905); The .Australasian Catholic Directory for 1906.

Henry W. Cle.\rv.

Austrebertha, Saint, Virgin, born c. 630 at Ther- ouane in the modern department of Pas-de-Calais in France; d. 10 February, 703 or 704. When her father desired to give her in marriage to a young nobleman, she fled from home and took the veil from the hands of Bishop Saint-Omer. Some time later she entered the monastery of Port on the Somme, where she was later elected prioress. Soon afterwards she was ap- pointed first abbess of the newly erected convent of Pavilly in Lower Seine. L'nder her direction the nuns of Pavilly became so celebrated for sanctity that parents came from all sides to place their daughters under the guidance of Austrebertha. Her name is in the Roman martyrology and she is hon-