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grouping of facts and instances; but this is scarcely

be wondered at, since Bacon, though he does allow

1 grudging value to it, proposed to inaugurate a ertain process by which inductions might be readil)' jroduced from facts by an almost mechanical or nathematical process.

t Interesting to the scholastic philosopher is his I reatment of causes — and particularly of the formal i-ause. There are the usual four causes, the formal tnd final belonging, in Bacon's scheme, to meta- phj'sical investigation; the efficient and material o physical. The aim of the author of the "Novum )rganum" was to banish final causes from the scope )f physical science. His limiting of the efficient ■ausc to physical science throws light upon his abrupt reparation of philosophy and theology {vide injra). [iVith regard to the formal cause of being, our author s peculiarly inconsistent. He uses the term in a |iUCcession of diff'erent suppositions, so that his true

neaning is effectually obscured in the varying uses

)f the word. But, from a passage in the "De Aug- nentis", it may be inferred that he treated of what s known to the scholastic as forma accidentalis. Hie "forms" of colour, gravity, density, heat, etc. 'of which the essences, upheld by matter, of all ■reatures do consist", are proposed for investigation —not the "forms" of sub.stances. It will be noted hat he makes the essences consist of these "forms" sustained by matter — a view that, with slight modi- ications, is to be found in several more modern systems.

Bacon's object was avowedly a practical one. jiven the inductive knowledge of the "form", we jught to be able to produce the logically consequent quality in matter. He conceived it a possibility

juggle with the "forms" in much the same sense IS the alchemist of earlier days hoped to transmute >ssences. His own positive contributions to the idvaneement of science were meagre in the extreme. Vo philosopher goes to his works for guidance, no icientist for information. Indeed, Dr. Whewell says hat no scientific discovery has e\'er been made by Bacon's method. The gaps in his system were never jridged by those promised processes that were to •endcr it complete. But it would be a mark of super- icial consideration and historical inaccuracy to label

he method that he advanced wholly jejune or useless.

\s a matter of fact, he called attention to the dan- gerous neglect of accurate observation that w'as the ■eproach of the later scholastics; and he gave an jndoubted incentive to the prosecution of positive icience. If he did little himself to rai.se science to

he position of dignity it now occupies, he at least

ndicated the path upon which it should proceed. But in creating the method of induction he abased

hat of deduction; and without a single general

arinciple as a basis, any philo.sophy, systematic or Tiathematieal, is open to the charge of inconsequence.

Bacon's position in regard to revelation is well inown. Reason can attain no positive knowledge 3f God. This must come by faith alone. Religion !s above re.ason, but is not opposed by it. On the 'ontrarj-, it is the office of rea.son to meet the objec- lions and refute the arguments that are urged against the truths of revelation. Whether Bacon was really

1 rationalist or a believer has been disputed. As a statesman, he was an Anglican and Erastian. As a philosopher, religion does not come within his pur- I'iew, But there are passages in his writings that show a decidedly reverent and religious spirit, es- oecially in some of the "Essays".

Lord Bacon's chief works are contained in the following list. The dates given are those of publica- tion. (1) "Advancement of Learning", 160.5. (This was expanded and translated into Latin and edited by Rawley as "Opera F. Baronis de Verulamio . . . Tomus primus qui continet de Dignitate et Augmen- II.— 13


tis Scientiarum libros IX", 1623.) (2) "De Sapien- tia Veterum", 1609 (done into English by Sir A. Gorges, Knight, as "The Wisdom of the Ancients", 1619); (3) "Essays; Religious Meditations (in Latin); Places of perswasion and disswasion; of the Colours of Good and Evil " (a fragment), 1579. In the second edition (159S) the Meditations are in English. In this first English edition there were 10 Essays; in the second (1612) 38; in the third (1625) 58. (4) "Historia Ventorum" (Part III of the "In- stauratio Magna"), 1622; (5) "Historia Vitae et Mor- tis" (2nd Title of Part III, I. M.), 1623; (6) "New Atlantis" (published by Rawley), 1627; (7) "Novum Organum"; " Distributio Operis"; "Parasceve"; "Catalogues", 1620. (The plan of the whole "In- stauratio Magna" is laid down in the preface.) (8) "Sylva Sylvarum" (published by Rawley), 1627. The chief editions of Bacon's works were made by Rawley (1627-57); Tenison (1679); Stephens (1734). "Complete editions" by Blackbourne (1730); Mallet (1740); Birch (1763); Montague (1834); Spedding, Ellis, and Heath (1857-83).

Abbot, Bacon and Essez (London, 1877); Dixon in British Authors, vol. CXLIX; Personal Hislonj of Lord Bacon (Leip- zig. 1841); Spedding. An Account of the Life and Times of Francis Bacon (Boston, 1878); Fowler, in English Philoso- phers: Bacon (London, 1881); Nicol in Philosophical Classics for English Reciders; Francis Bacon (Edinburgh, London, 1901 ); DE Maistre, Examen de la Philosophic de Bacon (Paris, Lyon, 1836): Doherty in Manning. Essays on Religion and Litera- ture, 3d Series, Flaws in the Philosophic of Bacon; Macaulay. Essay on Bacon (London, 1865-74); Whewell, Philosophy of Discovery (London, Cambridge, 1860); for Bacon's classifica- tion of the sciences, Flint, Philosophy as Scieniia Scientiarum (Edinburgh. London, 1904); Fibcheti, Franz Baca von Verulam, Die Realphilosophie und ihr Zeitalter; Franz Baco und seine Nachfolger. — The British Museum catalogue has some pages devoted to works on the Bacon-Shakespeare controversy. Francis Aveling.

Bacs, Diocese of. See Kalocza.

Badajoz, Diocese of (Pacensis). — The Latin name Pax, or Civilas Pacensis, was given to this dis- trict because it was thought to be the Pax Julia or Pax Augusta of the Romans. But it is now certain that the Pax of the Roman period is the city of Beja, in Portugal, not far from Badajoz. and that the latter name is of Arabic origin. The bishopric was erected in 1225, shortly after it was reconquered from the Moors by King Alfonso IX of Leon. Its first bishop was Don Pedro Perez, appointed by Alfonso X, the Wise, and from that time it has had an uninterrupted succession of bishops. The diocese, which is suffra- gan to Seville, is bounded on the north by the Dio- ceses of Coria, Plasencia, and Toledo, on the east by those of Toledo, Ciudad Real, and Cordova, on the south by the Archdiocese of Seville, and on the west by Portugal. It is composed of 136 parishes, divided into 13 vicariates, which in ancient times numbered 18, with approximately half a million souls. The cathedral has a chapter composed of 5 prelates. 13 canons, 16 beneficed clerics (formerly called medioracioneros), besides the chaplains and other personnel necessary for the proper carrying out of Divine worship. There is a diocesan seminary, under good instructors, for the education of aspirants to the priesthood, also colleges in the city of Badajoz and in Zafra, conducted by the Regular Priests of the Heart of Mary, and several religious communities in other cities. The Poor Clares have an establishment at Almendrales; the discalced Franciscans, Carme- lites, and Sisters of St. Anne at Badajoz, and the .'^ugustinians, Carmelites, and Poor Clares elsewhere, making in all 19 communities of cloistered nuns, besides 3 communities of Sisters of Charity who at- tend the sick at Badajoz, Zafra, and Frenegal de la Sierra. There are schools for primary and religious instruction in all the parishes.

The diocesan territory of Badajoz comprises almost all of the civil province of the same name, which lies between the meridians 4° 36' 12" and 7° 9' west of