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BADEN


194


BADEN


Greenwich, and between 37° 90' and 39° 30' north latitude, with an area of 7,143 square miles. Several rivers, among them the famous Guadiana (the Flumen Aims of the ancients), flow through this province, and the Madrid-Caceres-Lisbon railroad traverses it. All of this district is very fertile, and yields all kinds of cereals, wine, and oil, also cork, the manufacture of which is practically the only industrj- of this section. The climate is hot and unhealthy, intermittent and infectious fevers being very prevalent. Tliis part of Spain was first in- habited by the Vettones and Veturi, descendants of the Celts, and was called Vettonia. When the Romans divided Farther Spain {Hispania Ulterior) into various provinces, Badajoz was made a part of the province of Lusitania, whose capital, Merida (Emerita Augusta), became at the same time the metropolitan see. When the Arabs obtained pos- session of this territory, Merida was annexed to the Emirate of Cordova, and ceased to be a bishopric. The city of Merida is now included in the Diocese of Badajoz. The Kings of Leon and Castile recon- quered this section and gave to the part which is now Badajoz and Caceres the name of Estremadura {Extrema Durii), meaning, the region on the opposite side of the River Douro, which had for a long time been the dividing line between Moors and Chris- tians.

Hernan Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, was a native of Medellin in the province and Bishopric of Badajoz. Massona, Archbishop of Merida, anil Paul the Deacon (Paulus Diaeonus Emeritensis) may also be mentioned among the distinguished natives of this district; of whom the former took part in the Comi- cils of Toledo, and the latter is known as the author of " De vita et Miraculis Patrum Emcritensium ".

Florez, Espana Sagrada. See also Histories, Year-books, and Ecclesiastical Guides of Spain.

TiRso Lopez.

Baden, Grand Ddchy of, is situated in the south- western part of the German Empire, bounded by Switzerland, Alsace, the Palatinate, Hesse, Bavaria, and WUrtemberg, covering an area of 5,821 square miles. According to the census of 1 December, 1905, the population numbered 2,010,728, including 1,198,511 Catholics, 762,826 Evangelicals, 8,096 Old Catholics, 2,060 Lutherans, 2,823 Reformed, 2,157 of various Evangelical denominations, 7,449 of other Christian beliefs, 25,893 Jews, and 600 others of various religious persuasions.

I. History, (a) Thf Middle Ages. — The present Grand duchy has been formed from the territories of various ecclesiastical and secular rulers. At the beginning of the Christian Era the Baden of to-day was a part of the so-called tithe lands (agri decumates) which were protected by a wall against the barbarian Germans. From this point the Alemanni made repeated incursions into the Roman territory, and after the death of the Emperor Aurelius Probus (282) they took possession of the southern part of the tithe lands. The victories of 496 and 536 made the Franks masters of this region, and Pepin the Short set aside the old form of government by tri- bal dukedoms in 748, introducing the form of organ- ization of the Prankish Empire. The ri.se of the Prankish power brought Christianity into the prov- ince. The southern part of the country received the Faith about 610 from St. Columbanus and his pupil St. Gall, who were followed a hundred years later by St. Pirminius. St. Trudpert laboured in the Breis- gau, and St. Kilian in the north-eastern part of the territory. The valley of the Rhine was evangelized from Mainz. Much of the credit for having con^-erted the land belongs to the many monasteries that were founded in the course of these centuries: Reichenau, Honau near Kehl, St. Trudpert, Ettenheimmiinstcr, Gengenbach, Schwarzach, St. Michael near Heidel-


berg, Petershausen near Constance, and St. Blasien; also monasteries for women, as Siickingen, Waldkirt li, Sulzburg, and others.

Under the weak rule of the last Carlovingians anrl after the extinction of the djTiasty, the old form of government by tribal dukedoms again prevailed, and only powerful kings like Otto I, Henry II, and Henry III were able to maintain their authority. The natural allies of the kings against tlic dukes of the different tribes were the ecclesiastical authorities, the bishops and abbots, who thereby obtained great in- fluence and large possessions. Ecclesiastically the territory of the present Baden was divided into six dioceses: Constance, Speycr, Strasburg, Worms, Mainz, and Wiirzburg; moreover the Bishops of Bam- berg were wealthy landed proprietors, Henry II hav- ing bestowed on them Crown-lands in the Ortenau, as well as placing the abbeys of Ettenheimmiinster, I Gengenbach, and Schuttern under their jurisdiction.! The monasteries of Reichenau and St. Blasien, in' particular, became possessed of large temporalities. Among secular rulers great prominence was attained by Count Berthold (d. 1078), who claimed descent from the old Allemannian dukes and in 1061 became Duke of Carinthia and M;'.rgrave of Verona. In the struggle between the p.apacy and Emperor Henry IV, Berthold remained faithful to the Church. The youngest of liis three sons, Salomon, was Bishop of Constance (1084-1110), and the other two, Berthold n (d. 1111) and Hermaim I (d. 1074), were the ancL tors of the dukes and margraves of the Zahringen line. The ducal line of descendants received in fief from the Empire a part of Burgimdy and central and western Switzerlant.!, with Zurich as capital. Of these rulers Berthold II fomided Freiburg in the Brcisgau, Berth'ild IV, Fribourg in Switzerland; and Berthold V, Berne. At the death of Berthold V in 1218 this branch of the family became extinct, and its freehold estates passed on to the margraves of the other branch, whose descendants are still the reigning family of Baden. The first of the line of margraves of this branch was Hermann I, who died a monk in the Abbey of Cluny. Many of his descendants dis- tinguished themselves in the affairs of the Em]3ire, as, for instance, Hermann V (1190-1242), who fought against the Mongols, Rudolf I (1243-88), who was first the enemy and then the friend of Rutlolph of Hapsburg; Bernhard I (1372-1431), a generous pa- tron of the monasteries of Gottesaue and Schwarz- ach; and James I (1431-53), who endowed the colle- giate foundation in the city of Baden-Baden. Others, however, lessened the family influence by the repeated partitions of their estates, thus contributing to the territorial subdi\'isions of what is now Baden.

Among the neighbouring rulers those ■with the largest landed possessions were the Counts of the Rhine Palatinate (Heidelberg etc.), the Hapsburg djmasty, which in the fourteenth centurj- obtained the whole of the Breisga\i, together ^\ith the cities of Freiljurg, Breisach, Waldkircli, and other places; the Counts of Ftirstenbcrg. whose domains lay chiefly in the region of the Baar (such as the town of Donau- eschingen); and the Counts of Wertheim. There were, besides, numerous rulers of smaller secular principalities, knights of the Empire, and free cities. To all these must be added the ecclesiastical rulers, the six bishops, some 160 monasteries, and a few estates held in commendation by Knights of St. John and the German Knights Templars. The intellectual, spiritual, and economic life which flour- ished at this time on the Upper Rhine was as varied as the territorial divisions of the land. E\'idences of the zeal with which the arts and learning were cultivated not only in the monasteries, but also in the cities, are to be found in the many buildings dating from that period, as, for instance, those at Constance, Freiburg, I'eberlingen, etc., in monastic