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libraries, in the large attendance at the Universities of Heidelberg, and Freiburg, in the intermediate schools, among which the one at Pforzheim won a high reputation, in the diffusion of the art of printing, etc. On account of the undeniable abuses which had crept into ecclesiastical life, many fell under the influence of certain intellectual movements which prepared the way for the Reformation, such as secret religious associations, and the Pseudo-mystics, the Hussites, the Flagellants, and especially Humanism, which was in great favour at the court of the Electors Palatine.

(b) From the Reformation to the formation of the present State. — The first impulse to revolutionary religious ideas in Baden came from Luther himself, who in 151S spent some time in Heidelberg, where he appeared as a public speaker and soon gained adherents. The Reformation first took firm root in the Countship of Wertheim, in Constance (1530), in the Countship of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1545), and in the electoral palatinate (1546). The territories under ecclesiastical rulers and the House of Hapsburg remained true to the Catholic Faith. The progress of the Reformation in the Margravate of Baden was far from being uniform. Margrave Christopher I of Baden (1475-1527) had in 1503 united all the family territorj-, but the division in 1533 between his two sons Bernhard III and Ernest separated the margravate into two parts which were not re- united until 1771. Bernhard received the Margra- vate of Baden-Baden, and his brother the Margravate of Baden-Durlach. .\ part of the population of Baden-Baden had alreadv adopted the new teachings, but at the death of Bernhard III (1536), Duke Albert V of Bavaria, the guardian of Bernhard's son, Philip II, brought the country' back to the Cathohc Faith. Philip himself (1569-88), who had been educated by the Jesuits at Ingolstadt, was a \'igorous opponent of the new teaching.

The Baden-Durlach branch of the family laid claim to Baden-Baden during the reign of Philip's successor, Edward Fortunatus (1588-1600), occu- pied a part of the country until 1622, and introduced the Reformation. Margrave WiUiam (1622-77), however, after many reverses, succeeded with the aid of the Catholic party in the Empire in gaining the undisputed mastery of the margravate. Aided in an especial manner by the Jesuits and Capuchins, for whom he established houses, he brought the Protestant part of the country back to the Catholic Faith. His successor, Louis WiUiam (1677-1707), rendered many serWces to the Church and the Empire in fighting against the Turks (1683) and the French. Louis William, his vriie. .\ugusta Sibylla, as regent for their son Louis George (1707-61), and the last named in his turn notably furthered the interests of the Church of Baden. With the death of Augustus George (1761-71), who by papal dispensation had left the ecclesiastical state, and who founded many reli- gious institutions, the line of Baden-Baden became extinct, and the succession fell to the Baden-Durlach branch. Margrave Ernest (1527-53) of Baden- Durlach had favoured the Reformation, and his son Charles II (1553-77) .soon estabhshed the Reforma- tion in his domains. After this time the Protestant religion remained dominant in the land of Baden- Durlach and its supremacy was not atTected even bj' the reconciliation to the Church of James III, third son of Charles II, as James's death followed soon upon his conversion (1690). The most noted of the Baden- Durlach rulers were: Frederick V (1622-59), who founded many schools; Frederick VI (16.59-77), who distinguished himself by his devotion to the emperor and the Empire; Charles William (1709-38), who in 1715 established the present capital of Karlsruhe, greatly improved the finances and the administration of justice, and zealously promoted the interests of


the schools. His grandson, Charles Frederick (1738- 1811), during his long reign introduced salutary reforms in all p.-'jts of his territory, thus raising his countrj' from the level of a petty principality to the rank of one of the greater central states of the German Empire. The extinction of the Baden-Baden branch greatly increased his possessions, which were still further enlarged by the political changes resulting from the French Revolution. In 1796 Charles Frederick was forced to surrender to France his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, but was amply compensated by the Imperial Delegates' Enact- ment (1803). He received the Diocese of Constance, that part of the Rhine Palatinate hing on the right bank of the river, including the cities of Heidelberg, Mannheim, etc., parts of the Dioceses of Strasburgand Speyer, eleven religious houses and abbeys, and seven cities of the empire. By the Peace of Pressburg (1805), and the accession of Baden to the Confedera- tion of the Rliine (1806), Baden was stiU further en- larged by the former possessions of Austria in the Breisgau, the city of Constance, and other territories, whereby substantially the present boundaries were established. On 13 August, 1806, Baden was pro- claimed a Grand duchy. The enforced participation of the duchy in the campaigns of Napoleon resulted in heaN'y loss of life and property.

(c) Receiit Histonj.— In 1818 Grand Duke Charles (1811-18), the successor of Charles Frederick, gave the country a fairly liberal constitution. The first Landtag, however, came into conflict with the gov- ernment of Grand Duke Louis (1818-30), who had been trained in the ideas of absolutism, and was able at times to rule almost despotically. Despite the introduction of many timely reforms during the reign of Grand Duke Leopold (1830-52), there were often bitter contentions between the Government and the representatives of the people. In the course of these difficulties, the opponents of the Goverimient became constantly more inflamed until a leading party of opposition was formed, which, influenced by the prevailing political tendencies, gave e\'idence of a strong inclination towards radical principles. Radicalism obtained a strong footing not only in the Landtag, but also throughout the country. The revolutionary movement of 1848, which began in France, found, therefore, in Baden a most favourable soil. Although the Government granted many of the demands of the people for more liberal administration, outbreaks occurred. In the beginning these were suppressed, but a mutiny of the troops in Rastatt and Karlsrulie brought victory to the Revolutionists. In May, 1849, the insurgents took possession of Karlsruhe, proclaimed a republic, and established a provisional government. It was only through the aid of Prussia and the German Confederation that the revolution in Baden was repressed, and the Grand duke could re-establish his authority. Severe punisliment was meted out to the guilty, especially to the mutinous soldiers.

II. EccLESi.iSTic.vL CONFLICTS. — During the reign of Grand Duke Louis II (1852-56), whose brother Frederick held the regency until 1856, when he him- self succeeded to the title, the Government and the representatives of the Cathohc Church, who had been at odds for a long time, came into open conflict. The revolutions of the Napoleonic period had shaken the organization of the Church in Germany to its verj' foundations. In the modern Grand duchy of Baden, as it existed at the beginning of the nineteenth centurj', two-thirds of the population professed the Catholic religion. They constituted 728 parishes divided among six different dioceses (Constance, Strasburg, Speyer, Worms, Mainz, and Wiirzburg). A reconstruction of ecclesiastical affairs was mani- festly necessary and was made, so far as the State was concerned, by the organization decrees of 1803