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centre of the associated charities (Charitasverband) of CathoUe Germany. The chief religious societies and confraternities are: the Archconfraternity of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar, the Most Pure Heart of Mary, and of Christian Mothers, the League of Prayer for Germany, the Association of the Holy Family, the Association of the Holy Child- hood of Jesus, the Boniface Society, the Ludwig Mission Society, St. Michael's Society, the Societies of St. Vincent de Paul for men and women, and others.

The most important Cathohc church edifices are the cathedrals of Freiburg and Constance, the churches of Ueberlingen and Breisach, and those of Baden-Baden, Salem, St. Blasien, Reichenau, Gen- genljach, Bronnbach, Schwarzach, Ladenburg, Neu- stadt, Karlsruhe.

A complete bibliography is to be found in Kienitz axd W.\g- XER. Badische BMiothek (Karlsruhe, 1897 and 1900). The more important works, especially those treating of ecclesias- tical history, are: Schopf-lin, Historia ZarinQo-Badensis (7 vols., Karlsruhe. 1763-66); DCmge. Regesta Badensia (Karlsruhe, 1836); Mone, Quellensammlung der badUch^^ Landesgesch. (4 vols., Karlsruhe, 1836); Preuschex. Badische Geschidlte (Karlsruhe, 1842); Moxe. Die katholischen Zristande in Baden (Ratisbon. 1841 and 1843); Bader, Die katholische Kirche in Baden (Freiburg, 1860); Longxer. Beitrage zur Geschiehte der oberrheinischen Kirchenprovim (Tubingen. 1863); Offizielle Aktenstucke aber die Kirchen und Schulfrage in Baden (7 numbers, Freiburg, 1864-75); Vierordt, Badische Gesckichle bis zum Ende des Miltelalters (Tiibingen. 1865); BrCck, Die oberrheinische Kirchenprovim (Mainz, 1868); Spohn. Badisches Staatskirchenrecht (Karlsruhe. 1868); Fbied- berg, Der Siaat und die katholische Kirche im GrossherzogUtm Baden (2d ed., Leipzig, 1874); Korber. Die Ausbreitung des Christentums im sudlichen Baden (Heidelberg. 1878); Das Grossherzogtum Baden (Karlsruhe, 1885); Baumstark, Die kirchenpolitischen Gesetze und Verordnungen far die romisch- katholische Kirche im Grossherzogtum Baden (Karlsruhe. 1888); Weech, Badische Geschiehte (Karlsruhe, 1890); Heixer, Gesetze die katholische Kirche (in Baden) betreffend (Freiburg, 1890); Maa9. Geschiehte der katholischen Kirche im Grossher- zogtum. Baden (Freiburg, 1891); Heiner. Die kirchlichen Erlasse. Verordnungen und Bekanntmarhungen der Erzdiozese Freiburg (2d ed., Freiburg, 1898); Muller, Badische Land- tagsgesch. (Berlin. 1899-1902), I-IV; Fester axd Wm-E, Regesten der Markgrajen von Baden und Hachberg (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1900); Krieger, Topographisches Worterbuch des Grossherzogtums Baden (2d ed., 2 vols., Heidelberg, 1903-05); Goxxer axd Sester, Das Kirchenpatronatsrecht im Grossher- zogtum Baden (Stuttgart. 1904); Zeitschrift fur Geschiehte des Oberrheins (Karlsruhe, 1850-85), I-XXXIX; Id., new series (Freiburg. 1886-92, Karlsruhe, 1893-1904, Heidelberg, 1902, sqq.). I-JCXIl.

The most important historical periodicals are: Zeitschrift fur Geschiehte des Oberrheins (Karlsruhe since 1850); Freiburger Diozesanarchiv (Freiburg, since 1865); Alem.annia (Bonn, 1873 sqq.; since 1900 in Freiburg).

Joseph Lins.

Badia, TonrM.\so, Cardinal, author, papal legate, b. at Modena, 1483; d. at Rome, 6 September, 1547. He entered the Dominican Order in his native city, soon excelled all his brethren in learning, and taught theologj- successively at Ferrara, Venice, and Rome. When Sylvester de Prierias was sent on a mission to the princes of Italy, Badia was chosen to fill, tempo- rarily, the office of Master of the Sacred Palace, to which he succeeded permanently, probably in 1523. He was put on the commission which drew up the list of abuses to be reformed in the Coimcil of Trent. He took part in the Diet of Worms (1540), not only as disputant, but also as theologian of Cardinal Con- tarini. On his return to Italy Paul III created him cardinal, and though selected as one of the legates to preside at Trent he was retained at Rome to examine the doctrinal and disciplinarj' memoranda drawn up in the sessions of the council. It was on his favour- able recommendation and approval of its constitutions that Paul III confirmed the Society of Jesus. At his own desire he was buried in the Minerva beside Cardinal Cajetan. He is the author of several philo- sophical treatises, as well as works on Divine Provi- dence, the immortality of the soul and several treatises against Luther, none of which have been published.

QrETir axd Echard. SS. O. P.. 11, 132; Todrok, Hommes illtist.. IV. 116-121; Hefele-Hergexrother, Corici/ie«f7esc/i.,

IX, 944; DiTTRicH, Gasparo Contarini (Braunsberg, 1885); L. Pastor. Die C orrespondenz des Kardinals Contarini in Hist. Jahrbuch, I. 321-392; 473-500, passim.

Thos. M. Schwertner.

Badin, Stephen Theodore, the first Catholic priest ordained within the hmits of the original thirteen States of the LTujon, pioneer missionarj' of Kentuckj', b. at Orleans, France, 17 July, 1768; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 21 April, 1853. Educated at Montaigu College, Paris, he entered the Sulpician Seminarj' of his native city in 1789. He was sub- deacon when the seminary was closed by the revolu- tionarj' government, in 1791, and sailed from Bor- deaux for the American mission in November of the same year, with the Revs. B. J. Flaget and J. B. David, both destined in God's pro\ndence to wear the mitre in Kentucky. They arrived in Philadelphia on the 26th of March. 1792, and were welcomed at Baltimore by Bishop Carroll on the 28th. Stephen T. Badin pursued his theological studies with the Sulpicians and was ordained a priest by Bishop Carroll, 25 May, 1793. His was the first ordination in the United States. After a few months spent at Georgetown to perfect himself in English, Father Badin was appointed to the Mission of Kentucky. He left for that scene of his apostolic labours with Father Barrieres, 3 September, 1793, travelled on foot as far as Pittsburgh, and by flat boat down the Oliio, landing at Limestone (Mays^^lle), Ky., where they foimd twenty Cathohc famihes. They walked sixty-five miles to Lexington, and on the first Simday of Advent, 1793, Father Badin said his first Mass in Kentuckj- at the house of Denis McCarthy.

He settled at White Sulphur, Scott County, sixteen miles from Lexington, and for about eighteen months attended this church and neighbouring missions. In April, 1794. his companion, who resided in Bardstown, left for New Orleans, and Father Badin was now alone in the Kentucky mission. For fourteen years he attended to the spiritual wants of the various Catholic settlements, scattered over an extent of more than 120 miles, forming new congregations, building churches, never missing an appointment. To visit his missions regularly he had to live in the saddle, and it is estimated that he rode more than 100,000 miles during his ministrj' in Kentuckj'. For many years he was imaided and alone; it was only in Jidy, 1806, that he received permanent help, when the Rev. Charles Nerinck.x came to take the larger part of the burden from his shoulders. They lived together at St. Stephen's, on Pottingers Creek, which was still their head- quarters on the arrival, in 1811, of Bishop Flaget, whom Father Badin had suggested and urged as first Bishop of Bardstown. Difficulties about the holding of church property soon arose between the bishop and Father Badin, without, however, inter- fering with the reverence of the latter for the bishop and the bishop's friendship for him. Together they went to Baltimore in 1812 to submit the controversy to Archbishop Carroll. It was not settled. They returned to Kentucky in April, 1813, and Father Badin resumed liis missionarj- duties and accom- panied his bishop on many pastoral journeys, until 1819. The Rev. J. B. David had been appointed coadjutor in 1817, but persi-stently refused to accept the honour. Father Badin, believing that this selection would put an end to the controversy about church property, and be for the good of the diocese of which he was the founder, left for France in the spring of 1819. The consecration of Bishop David in September of that year, and tmjust suspicions about his disposition of church properties caused him to remain abroad. In 1820 he accepted the parish of Millaney and Marreilly-en-Gault , about forty miles from Orleans. He continued, however, to take the greatest interest in the Kentuckj' mis-