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nal Maryland missions. In 17S9 Georgetown College was founded. A frame church was erected at 'W'est- minster (17S9), succeeded by Christ Church (1805), under the Rev. Joseph Zucchi. In 1791 the Diocese of Baltimore included all the territorj' east of the Mississippi, except Florida; in this vast territory there were churches at Baltimore, New York (1785), Boston (1788), Charleston (1788); in Marj-land at St. Inigoes. Xewto«Ti, Newport, Port Tobacco. Rock Creek, Annapolis, Whitemarsh, Bohemia, Tuckahoe, Deer Creek. Frederick, Westminster; in Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, Lancaster, Conewago, Goshenhop- pen; in Delaware, at Coffee Run. also at Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Prairie du Rocher. In 1790, a Carmelite community was established at Port To- bacco under Mother Frances Dickinson. The nuns remained there until 1831, when twenty-four sisters under Mother Angela Mudd removed to Baltimore. In 1791. the first diocesan sjiiod in the United States was opened at the bishop's house in Baltimore. Twenty-two priests and the bishop were present. At tliis sjmod the offertory collections were inaugu- rated. Between 1791 and 1798 seventeen French priests arrived, some of whom became famous in the history of the United States — the Re\s. John Dubois (1791), Benedict Flaget, J. B. David. Ambrose Mar^chal (1792), William DuBourg, and John Moran- ville (1794), and Jolm Lefe\Te Cheverus (1796). Until this time the burden of the missions of Maryland had been borne by the Jesuits. From 1700 to 1805 about ninety Jesuits had laboured on the mission, of whom about sixty were English, sixteen Americans, and the rest German, Irish, Welsh, Belgian, and French. They were apostolic men who devoted their lives without eartlily reward to the service of others.

In 1792, Catholics in the eastern section of Balti- more, finding it inconvenient to attend the pro-cathe- dral, asked for a priest and rented a room in the third storj' of a liouse, corner of Fleet and Bond Streets, where the first Mass was said by Bishop CarroU. This congregation numbered about twelve persons. The Rev. Antoine Garnier, from St. Mary's Seminarj-, Nasited them twice weekly until 17 December. 1795, when the Rev. John Floyd took charge. The first church was erected on Apple Alley near Wilks Street. Father Floyd diinng in 1797, Father Garnier was again made pastor until 1S03, when the Rev. Michael Coddy succeeded him. Djnng ■n'ithin the year, his place was taken by the Rev. John Moranvill^, through whose zeal the corner-stone of St. Patrick's Church (Broad- way and Bank Streets) was laid 10 July, 1804. It ■was dedicated 29 November, 1807, being then the most imposing church in the diocese. Father iloran- vill6 died in 1824, and was succeeded by tlie Rev. Nicholas Kearney (d. 1840). the Rev. John Dolan (d. 1870), and the Rev. John T. Gaitley (d. 1892). In 1898 the old church was replaced by the present hand- some Gothic edifice. St. Patrick's School, begun by Father Moranvill^, preceded all public schools in Baltimore. The earliest German CathoUc congrega- tion was established 17 Februarj', 1702, assembling for the first time for Di\-ine service in a house near Centre Market. About ISOO Father Renter, a priest in charge of the German Catholics, fomented a schism amongst them. They buUt a church where St. Al- phonsus's now stands, called it St. John the Evange- list's, and defied the bishop, who carried the case to the com-ts, which decided in his favour (1805). Arch- bishop Eccleston confided the church to the Redem]> torists in 1840. The corner-stone of the new church was laid in 1841, the name being changed to St. Al- phonsus's. This church is distinguished for two pastors whose repute for sanctity entitles them to special mention, the Venerable John N. Neumann (Bishop of Philadelphia, 1852-60), the process of whose beatification is still pending in Rome (Berger,

Life of Right Rev. Jolm N. Neumann, D.D., New York, 1884); and the Rev. Francis X. Seelos who died in 1867. the first steps towards whose canoniza- tion were taken in 1901 (Zimmer, Life of Rev. F. X. Seelos, New York, 1887). St. Joseph's, Emmits- burg, was founded in 1793, by the Rev. Matthew Ryan. The Revs. Jolm Dubois and Simon Brut6 were afterwards pastors of this church. The first baptismal record of St. Marjs Church, Brj-antown, was entered in 1793. Father David, the first pastor, was transferred to Georgeto'mi in 1804. In 1794, the first church was built in Hagerstown, attended by the Rev. D. Cahill. About 1795. a log church (St. Marjs) was built at Cumberland; a brick church was substituted in 1838. It was replaced by the present church (St. Patrick's) begun in 1849 by the Rev. O. L. Obermeyer, and consecrated in 1883. St. Joseph's. TaneT,-1o\Mi, was built by ilr. Brookes (1796). Its first pastor was the well-kno'mi Russian nobleman and convert. Father Demetrius A. Gallitzin.

It was soon seen that a coadjutor for the diocese was desirable in case of the bishop's death, and tlie Rev. LawTence Grsssel, a German priest of Phila- delpliia, was appointed to that office. This zealous priest dying soon after, the Rev. Leonard Neale, a native of Maryland, was selected, and was consecrated 7 December, 1800, at the Baltimore pro-cathedral. A notable event at this time was the marriage of Jerome Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, to Miss Patterson of Baltimore, Bishop CarroU officiating (24 December. 1803).

(b) Educational Institittions. — As already stated Georgeto'mi College was opened by the Jesuit Fathers in 1791. (Centennial Hist, of Georgetown College, Washington, 1891.) In 1803 the faculty of St. Mary's Seminary instituted an undenominational college course which continued until 1852, when Loyola College was opened. During this period it numbered among its students many who afterwards became prominent; among others Robert Walsh, A. B. Roman, the Latrobes, the Carrolls, the Jenkins, the Foleys, S. Eccleston. J. Chanche, F. E. Chatard, C. I. White. S. T. Wallis, Robert McLane_, C. C. Biddle. Reverdy Jolm- son, Oden Bowie. Leo Ivnott, Christopher Johnson. At one time (1S39-40) it had 207 students. In the meantime an attempt was made to separate the college from the serainarj', and in 1807 Father Nagot estab- lished a college at Pigeon Hills. Pennsylvania, but in ISOS, the sixteen students were transferred to a new in- stitution begun at Emmitsbm-^ by the Rev. John Du- bois, a Sulpician. Such was tne beginning of Mt. St. Manis College. It gave to the Church one cardinal (McCloskey), five archb'shops, twenty-one bishops, and five himdred priests. To carrj- out a design long entertained by the Sulpicians, St. Charles College, a petit siminaire. was begim and buUt on land donated by Charles Carroll of CarroUton. The corner-stone was laid in 1S31, but owing to the lack of fimds the college was not opened until 1848. The Rev. O. L. Jenkins was its first president , ^\ith one instructor and four students, but at his death (1869) there were thirteen instructors, 140 students, and one hundred priests among its alumni. Since 1853, St. Marj-'s Seminary has been exclusively a grand scminaire. ■nith plulosophy and theologj- courses. The memories of the devoted priests who during more than a centurj- have composed its faculties, men of great learning and deep piety, are cherished with lo^^ng reverence by the numerous clergj- they have taught. The alumni roll of St. Marj-'s contains the names of one cardinal. 30 bishops, 1,400 priests (Centennial Historj' of St. Marj-'s Seminary, Baltimore, 1891). The Society of Jesus was re-established in Marj-land (1805) with the Rev. Robert Mohmeux as superior.

In 1808, Mrs. Elizabeth .mn Seton, a convert from Episcopalianism, went from New York to Baltimore and lived ^^^th some companions next to St. Marj-'s