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Seminarj-. A convert, the Rev. Samuel S. Cooper, having given Mrs. Seton and her nine companions a lot at Eramitsburg, they founded there (1810) the Academy of St. Joseph. In 1812, the com- munity was established under the rules of the Sisters of Charity and Mrs. Seton was elected mother su- perior. She died in 1821. leaving a flourishing com- mimity of fifty sisters (T\"hite, "Life of Eliza A. Seton", New York, 1853; Seton, Memoir Letters and Journal of Elizabeth Seton", Xew York, 1869; De Barbarry, "Elizabeth Seton", 2 vols., Paris, 1881; Sadlier, Xew York, s. d.). The community re- mained independent until 1850, when the sisters al- lied themselves with the Sisters of Charity of France, adopting the French costume. Thirty-one sisters in the Diocese of Xew York preferred to continue imder the old rule and organized a separate body. During the CiWl War (1862-63), 140 Sisters of Charity gave their services on the field and in the hospitals. The following notable institutions have been founded in the diocese from the mother house at Emmitsburg: St. Marsh's Orphan .\s^dum (1817); Mt. Hope Retreat (1840); "St. Vincent's Infant Asylum (1856); St. Jo- seph's House of Industry (1863); St. Agnes's Hos- pital (1863).

(c) The Baltimore Cathedral. — ^The acquisition of Louisiana by the United States increased the labours of Bishop Carroll. In 1805, the Holy See made him Administrator Apostolic of Louisiana and the Flori- das. Until this time the bishop had officiated in St. Peter's Church, built about 1770. at the corner of Xortheast and Forrest Streets. The Rev. Bernard Diderick. a Belgian priest, attended the church monthly from 1775-82. The Rev. Charles Sewell of St. Man,s County was the first resident pastor. Per- suaded by Dr. DuBourg, the bishop and trustees de- cided (1806) to erect the new cathedral on the present site. The comer-stone was laid 7 July, 1806, by Bishop Carroll. The first rector of the cathedral was the Rev. Francis Beeston. He died (1809) before the church was finished. His successor was the Rev. Enoch Fenwick (d. 1827), to whose untiring zeal was due the completion of the church in 1821. During the building of the church the congregation had grown so large that the Sulpicians opened to the public the chapel of St. Mary's Seminarj', then newly dedicated (1808). For half a century it continued to be the succursal church of the cathedral. On 31 May, 1821, the cathedral was dedicated by Archbishop Mar^chal. The architect who had generously given his ser\ices gratis, and faithfully watched over the erection of the edifice was Benjamin H. Latrobe, a Protestant gentle- man, and a devoted friend of .Archbishop Carroll. He was engaged at the same time in building the National Capitol. The high altar of the cathedral was a gift to Archbishop Marechal from his pupils in Marseilles. The imposing portico of the building was added in 1863, under the direction of the architect, Eben Faxon. The cathedral was consecrated 25 May, 1876, by Archbishop Bayley. During Cardinal Gib- bons's administration a commodious sacristy was erected (1879); the sanctuarj' was extended (1888); two altars, gifts of Mrs. Michael Jenkins and James Sloan, were added, and the altar rail in memorj- of William Boggs donated (1906). There are few edi- fices in the United States as rich in historical memo- ries as the Baltimore Cathedral. Within its walls have been held three plenarj' councils (1852, 1866, 1884), ten provincial councils, and nine diocesan synods; three cardinals have been invested, Gibbons, 1886; SatoUi, 1890; Martinelli, 1901; six archbishops have received the pallium, twenty-five bishops have been consecrated, and 644 priests have been ordained by Cardinal Gibbons alone. The bishops consecrated in the cathedral were; B. J. Fenwick (1825), Dubois (1826), Whitfield (1828), Purcell (1833), Eccleston (1834), Chanche (1841), Whelan (1841), Tyler (1844),

Elder (1857), Barrv (1857), Verot (185S), Becker (1868), Gibbons (1868), Thomas Foley (1870), Gross (1873), Xorthrop (1882), Glorieux "(18S5), Curtis (1886), Haid (1888), John Foley (ISSS), ChapeUe (1891), Donahue (1894), .-Ulen (1897), Granjon (1900), Conaty (1901). In the chapel built by Cardinal Gibbons under the high altar repose the ashes of Carroll, Marechal, Whitfield, Eccleston, Kenrick, and Spalding. Besides those already mentioned many distinguished clergjTuen have been associated with the cathedral; Revs. Roger Smith, Charles C. Pise, Charles I. 'UTiite, first editor of "The Catholic Mirror", John Hicke}^ S.S., H.B. Coskery, Thomas Becker, Thomas Foley, Thomas S. Lee, A. A. Curtis, P. J. Donahue, and C. F. Thomas. The cathedral parish has always counted among its members a great number of dis- tinguished persons. Among its pewholders have been CTiarles Carroll of CarroUton, Chief Justice Taney, Da\id Williamson, Luke Tiernan, Thomas Sim Lee, Thomas C. Jenkins, E. Austin Jenkins, Alfred Jen- kins, William George Read, John HUlen. Patrick Bennett, Basil Elder, John Walsh, Solomon HiUen, John and Richard Caton, Dr. Peter Chatard, Abra- ham White, Jerome Bonaparte, Courtney Jenkins, ilark Jenkins, Basil Spalding, Judge Parkin Scott, Philip Laurenson, >L Benzinger, Charles JI. Dough- erty, Col. J. X. Bonaparte, Wtlliam Kennedy, Robert Barrj', Columbus O'Donnell, Jolm Murphy. In recent times and at present we find the Attorney-General of the United States. Hon. Charles J. Bonaparte, Michael Jenkins, Joseph Jenkins, Dr. Felix Jenkins, George Jenkins, the Misses Jenkins, Mr. and the Misses An- drews, the Misses Gardner, William Boggs, Daniel Foley, Mrs. and the Misses Mactavish, W. R. Crom- well, Mrs. John S. Gittings, Major N. S. Hill, Richard and Alien MacSherrj', Charles G. Xicholson, Miss Emily Harper, C. D. Kenny, A. Leo Knott, J. M. Littig, the Drs. MilhoUand, Robert Rennert, Robert Jenkins. Henrj' Bogue, the Messrs. Abell, the Misses Abell, Mrs. Alice Caughy, Messrs. Shri\-er, Joseph Turner, Mrs. Van Bibber, Owen Daly, Alexander Yearley, Harry Benzinger, James R. Wheeler, Charles Tiernan, Judge Charles Heuisler, Drs. Chatard, Drs. O'Donovan, Dr. Charles GrindaU, Messrs, and the Misses Boone. Edgar Gans, Captain BiUups, Messrs. Key, F. Dammann. Mrs. J. I. Griffiss, and Victor Baughman. Indeed the roll-call of the cathedral parishioners contains the names of the most dis- tinguished Catholics of their times. It is worthy of remark that although the trustee system has been continued at the cathedral for o\er one hundred years, there has never been any serious disagreement between the clergj' and laity. The archiepiscopal residence was built during Dr. Whitfield's administra- tion, and the two wings were added in 1865 by Captain WiUiam Kennedy.

(d) Division of the Diocese. — In compliance with Bishop Carroll's request for a division of his diocese, Pius VII (8 April, 1808) issued the Bulls creating four new sees, naming the Rev. Richard L. Concan- nen, a Dominican for Xew York; the Rev. Michael Egan, a Franciscan for Philadelphia; the Rev. John Cheverus for Boston, and the Rev. Benedict Joseph Flaget, Sulpician, for Bardstown. At the same time Baltimore was made the metropolitan see with Dr. Carroll as the first archbishop. Dr. Concannen, con- secrated in Rome (1808), died at Xaples (1810) when about to sail. Dr. Egan and Dr. Cheverus were con- secrated at Baltimore in the pro-cathedral (1810) and Dr. Flaget at St. Patrick's the same year. The pal- lium was conferred on Archbishop Carroll in St. Peter's, Baltimore, 18 August, 1811. At this time there were in the United States about seventy priests and eighty churches. Marjiand, Virginia, the Dis- trict of Columbia, the Carolinas, what is now Ala- bama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida were still under the jurisdiction of Baltimore, and in 1811 the