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Holy See added some of the Danish and Dutch West Indies. At this period occurred the interference of Archbishop Troy and other Irish bishops in American affairs (Shea, Life and Times of Abp. Carroll, pp. 664-66S). Dr. Carroll's protest at Rome was ren- dered ineffectual, owing to the representations of the Dominican Fathers Harold, who had hastened the death of Bishop Egan of Philadelphia, and after- wards, in Europe, enlisted against the Archbisliop the support of the Irish prelates. Worn out with the struggle, he died 3 December, 1815.

III. Successors of Archbishop Carroll. — (a) Leonard Xealc. — Archbishop Carroll was succeeded by Leonard Neale, a native of Marj'land. The Poor Clares (ilother Mary de la March^ and two others) had already opened an academy in 1801 at George- toi\-n, -n-ith Miss Alice Lalor as assistant teacher. These nuns returned to Europe after the death of the abbess; Miss Lalor continued the academy. Arch- bishop Neale erected the commmiity of teachers into a house of the Order of the Visitation 28 December, 1817. Archbishop Neale died 17 June, at GeorgetowTi, and was buried in the convent chapel.

(b) Ambrose Marechal. — Archbishop Mar^chal was born in France, and joined the Company of St. Sul- pice. He had already refused the See of Philadelphia (1816), but finally consented to become Archbishop Neale's coadjutor. He was consecrated at St. Peter's, Baltimore, 14 December, 1817, by Bishop Cheverus. In his first visitation he confirmed 2,.506 persons. In his diocese, which comprised Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, and the territory west of Georgia to the Mississippi, there were then, according to his estimate, 100,000 Catholics. About 10,000 were in Baltimore, ha\-ing increased to that figure from 800 in 1792. In one year there were 10,000 communions in the seminary chapel alone. There were fifty-two priests, principally French and American born. The Diocese of Baltimore at this time (1819) mourned the loss of Thomas Sim Lee, twice governor, and Mary- land's representative in the Convention which rati- fied the Constitution. In 1820, two schismatic priests, aided by intriguing Irish prelates, succeeded in having Patrick Kelly secretly appointed to the See of Rich- mond and John England to that of Charleston. Thus, without the archbishop's knowledge or consent, New York, Philadelpliia, Richmond, and Charleston were given for bishops titter strangers, bound by oath of allegiance to England, then at variance mth the United States. The Diocese of Baltimore was thus divided into two parts, Marj'land and the District of Columbia on the Atlantic, and a thousand miles off Alabama and Mississippi, mth Richmond and Charles- ton between. Archbishop Mar^chal, while at Rome, (1821) obtained for the provincial bishops the right to recommend candidates for vacant sees. Mississippi was erected into a Vicariate Apostolic with Dr. Du- Bourg as Vicar Apostolic; Alabama and Florida were attached to the Vicariate ApostoHc of Mobile (1825). In 1822, Bishop Kelly returned to Ireland, and Arch- bishop Marechal was appointed Administrator of the Diocese of Richmond. The archbishop died 29 Janu- ary, 1828.

(c) James Whitfield. — He was succeeded by James Whitfield, an Englisliman by birth. His consecration by Bishop Flaget took place 25 May, 1828, in the cathedral. October 4, 1829, the First Provincial Council of Baltimore was opened, and the same day the archbishop received the pallium. The Fathers of this council were Archbishop Whitfield, Bishops Flaget, the two Fenwicks (Boston and Cincinnati), England, Rosati, and Rev. William Matthews, repre- senting Philadelphia. (See B.\ltimore, The Provin- CI.4L CouNXiLSOF.) Tocarryout the Council's decrees, a sjTiod, attended by thirty-five priests, was held 31 October. 1831. There were at this time in Maryland about 80,000 Catholics in a population of 407,000;

in the District of Columbia about 7,000 in a popula- tion of 33,000. There were fifty-two priests in the diocese. Out of his private fortvme. Archbishop Whitfield built St. James's Church, Baltimore (1833). It was first used by English-speaking Catholics, who, finding it too small for their increasing numbers, com- menced the erection of St. Vincent's Church (1841). About the same time the German congregation of St. John's (Saratoga Street) began the building of their new church, St. Alphonsus; needing in the meantime a place for worship, they were granted the use of St. James's, after the opening of St. Vincent's (of which Father Gildea was the first pastor). The Redempto- rists from St. Alphonsus took charge henceforth of St. James's and built there the first convent of their order in the United States. Several other churches were established by the Redemptorists. In 1845, they founded St. Michael's, a siuall church on the corner of Pratt and Regester Streets; the present church on the corner of Lombard and Wolfe Streets was commenced in 1857. Its congregation is now one of the largest in the city. The Redemptorists also foimded Holy Cross parish, the corner-stone of the church being laid in 1858. Since 1869, the secular clergy have been in charge. The church of the Fourteen Holy Mart\Ts was begun (1870) by the Redemptorists; in 1874, they transferred it to the Benedictines. Rev. Meinrad Jeggle, O.S.B., was rector from 1878 to 1896. The new church was commenced in 1902. St. Wenceslaus's, dedicated in 1872, formed the nucleus of the Slav congregations in Baltimore. The Redemptorists took charge of it in 1882. A new church and school were commenced in 1903. In 1873 they began the Sacred Heart Church (Canton).

The Maryland Pro\-ince of the Society of Jesus was formally established in 1833, ■nith Father William Mc- Sherry, a Virginian, as first provincial. The Second Provincial Council met at the cathedral, Baltimore, 20 October, 1833. Besides Archbishop AVhitfield, there were present Bishops David, England, Rosati, Fenwick (Boston), Dubois, Portier, F. P. Kenrick, Rese, Purcell. Bishop Flaget was absent; the Jesuits, Sulpicians, and Dominicans were represented. A Roman Ritual adapted to the wants of this country was ordered to be prepared. Rev. Samuel Eccleston elected coadjutor, was consecrated in the cathedral 14 September, 1834, by Archbishop Whitfield, who died the following October.

(d) Samuel Eceleston. — Arclibishop Eccleston, a native of Maryland, a convert and a Sulpician, was thirty-three years old when he succeeded to the See of Baltimore. During his administration the anti- Catholic sentiment began to lose its -idolence and the tide of conversions set in. In 1834 there were within the jurisdiction of Baltimore (Maryland, Virginia, and District of Columbia) 70 churches and 69 priests. There were only 327 priests in the whole United States. The Visitation Nuns from Georgetown estab- lished a house in Baltimore (1837) with Mother Juli- ana Matthews as first superioress. Mother Anastasia Coombes established another Visitation monastery at Frederick in 1846. In 1852 another house was established (ilt. de Sales) at Catonsville, under Mother Cecilia Brooks.

The Third Provincial Council was held in the cathe- dral, 1837. It was attended by the archbishop, and Bishops Rosati, Fenwick (Boston), F. P. Kenrick, Purcell, Chabrat, Clancy, Brutd, Blanc. Bishop Dubois declined to assist. The Fourth Provincial Council was opened at the cathedral, 16 May, 1840. Ten bishops accepted the invitation of Archbishop Eccleston to attend the council, Flaget, Rosati, Fen- ^^^ck (Boston), Portier, F. P. Kenrick, Purcell, Blanc, Loras, Miles, De la Hailandiere. The Sulpicians, Dominicans, and Redemptorists were also represented. Rev. Richard Whelan and Rev. John Chanche were recommended by this council, respectively for the