Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/283

This page needs to be proofread.


BALTIMORE


237


BALTIMORE


been five years in the diocese. This does not apply to regulars, (v) Of preaching. While explaining the Church's doctrine, preachers should also treat fully of points denied by heretics or unbelievers. Their style, however, is not to be controversial but explanatory. In their method they should follow the Roman Catechism and make a careful study of the WTitings of the Fathers of the Church. Let them accommodate themselves to the capacity of their auditors. In reprehending vices, let them never become personal; neither should they be influenced in their preaching by human motives but declare the truth fearlessly. They are not to mingle political and civil matters with religious doctrines in their sermons or attack public magistrates. While the custom of delivering funeral orations is to be re- tained, yet care must be taken not to bestow undue praise. In all sermons let prolixity be avoided, (vi) Of clerical life and manners. Clerics are to avoid a dress and personal appearance not becoming their station. They should abstain from all improper spectacles and games. Let them avoid having re- course to civil tribunals when possible. They must not engage in trade forbidden by the canons. Let them not be importunate in speaking of money mat- ters to their flocks. The custom of priests taking money on deposit, for which interest is to be paid, is condemned. Let bishops as well as priests observe the prescriptions of the Council of Trent concerning their households. All clerics should avoid idleness as a pest, (vii) Of ecclesiastical seminaries. The erection of preparatory as well as greater seminaries is recommended. Theology and philosophy, Scrip- ture and Hebrew are to be taught in the latter. No student is to pass from one seminary to another without testimonial letters. In those dioceses where Germans are found who cannot speak English, it is expedient that the seminarians learn enough German to hear confessions.

Title iv, 0/ Ecclesiastical Property. — The decrees of the first seven councils of Baltimore concerning the abuses of lay trustees and of the best method of securing church property by civil sanction are repeated and re-enacted. As to lay trustees, they must not be members of secret societies nor men who have not fulfilled the paschal duty. They cannot expend a sum of money above three hundred dollars without written consent of the bishop. The pastor, not the trustees, appoints organist, singers, sacristan, school-teacliers, and others employed about the parish. When difference of opinion exists between pastor and trustees, all must abide by the decision of the bishop. All misunderstanding between the ordinary and regulars concerning temporal affairs will be averted if, at the founding of a new house, a document be drawn up expressing clearly all that relates to the foundation itself, to the rights thence flowing and to the duties connected with it.

Title v. Of the Sacraments. — (i) The Roman Ritual and the Baltimore "Ceremonial" are to be followed. Pastors should keep registers of baptisms, confirma- tions, marriages, and funerals. All of these, except the last, should be written in Latin, (ii) Of baptism. It must always be conferred in the church except in case of imminent death. Whether for infants or adults, all rites omitted at baptism must be afterwards supplied. As a rule converts are to be baptized; but care must be taken to inquire if they had been previously validly baptized, lest the sacrament be repeated. The same is to be said of those baptized in danger of death by laymen. Churching after child-birth, which has been generally neglected in this country, is to be in.sisted upon, (iii) Of con- firmation. Sponsors of the same sex as the recipient are to be empliiycd. (iv) Of the Holy Eucharist. Frequent Coinnnuiion is to be encouraged. Children should as a rule be admitted to First Conmiunion


between ten and fourteen years of age. (v) Of penance, (vi) Of indulgences. Preachers must be careful not to recommend doubtful or fictitious in- dulgences. Let them propose such as the faithful can gain most frequently, easily, and with greatest fruit. (vii) Of extreme unction. Olive oil is re- quired for this sacrament. The Fathers commend the proposition of the Bishop of Savannah to establish a community of Trappists on lands near St. Augus- tine, Florida, who would supply genuine olive oil, wine, and beeswax candles for the use of the churches, (viii) Of Holy orders. Clerics cannot be ordained without a canonical title. By Apostolic dispensation, our priests have thus far been ordained tittdo missionis for the most part. The Holy See is to be petitioned for a continuation of this privilege, (ix) Of Matri- mony. Rules are laid down for determining doubts concerning the probable death of soldiers in the late civil war. Mixed marriages are to be discouraged, (x) Of the sacramentals.

Title vi. Of Divine Worship. — (i) Of the Sacrifice of the Mass. Priests are never to leave the altar to collect alms from the faithful. Our quasi-parish- priests are not obliged to apply their Mass for their flock on festival days, (ii) Of Benediction and the Forty Hours' Exposition. The latter is to be per- formed according to the manner sanctioned by the Holy See for the Diocese of Baltimore, (iii) Of Vespers. The rudiments of the Gregorian chant should be taught in the parish schools.

Title vii. Of Promoting Uniformity of Discipline. — (i) Of fasts and feasts. Those now in use in each province are to be retained. The Patronal Feast of the Immaculate Conception is, however, to be celebrated in every diocese as of obligation, (ii) Of uniformity in other matters. Bishops should en- deavour to use a uniform method of acting in granting matrimonial dispensations. Catholics may be buried with sacred rites in non-Catholic cemeteries if they possess a lot in them, provided it was not acquired in contempt of church law. The poor must be buried gratuitously. Entrance money should not be col- lected at churches. Orphans are to be cared for. Faculties for blessing cemeteries and church bells may be delegated to priests.

Title viii, Of Regulars and Nuns. — (i) When a religious community has accepted a diocesan work, strictly so called, it should not relinquish it without giving the bishop notice si.x months beforehand. A clear distinction is to be made as to what property belongs to a religious community and what to the diocese, (ii) Nuns are not to make solemn vows until ten years after the taking of simple vows. Bishops are not to permit religious women to travel around soliciting alms.

Title i.\, Of Ike Education of Youth. — (i) Of parish schools. Teachers belonging to religious congrega- tions should be employed when possible in our schools. The latter should be erected in every parish. For children who attend the public schools, catechism classes should be instituted in the churches, (ii) In- dustrial schools or reformatories should be founded, especially in large cities, (iii) A desire is expressed to have a Catholic university in the LTnited States.

Title X, Of Procuring the Salvation of Souls. — (i) Of zeal for souls, (ii) Missions in parishes are to be encouraged; missionaries must not, however, inter- fere in the administration of the parish, (iii) Various confraternities and sodalities are named and recom- mended and regulations are given for their institution, (iv) Priests, both secular and regular, are exhorted to endeavour to further the conversion of the negroes in our midst.

Title xi. Of Books and Newspapers. — (i) Parents should guard their children against bad books. The bishops desire that textbooks in Catholic schools and colleges should be piu'ged of everything contrary