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to faith, (ii) Of the dissemination of good books, (iii) Prayer books should not be published until officially revised, (iv) Newspapers are frequently injurious to good morals. When a Catholic news- paper has a bishop's approbation, tliis means only that he judges that nothing will be published against faith or morals in its pages. He does not make himself responsible, however, for all that the paper contains.

Title xii, Of Secret Societies. — ^The Freemasons were long ago condemned by the Church. The Odd Fellows and Sons of Temperance are also forbidden societies. In general, the faithful may not enter any society which, having designs against Church or State, binds its members by an oath of secrecy. Title xiii. Concerning the Creation of Xew Bishoprics. Title xiv, Of the Execution of the Conciliar Decrees. — A number of important instructions and decrees of the Holy See are appended to the Acts of tliis council.

III. The Third Plen.\hy Council was presided over by the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Gibbons of Baltimore. Its decrees were signed by fourteen archbishops, sixty-one bishops or their representa- tives, six abbots, and one general of a religious con- gregation. The first solemn session was held 9 No- vember, and the last 7 December, 1884. Its decrees are divided into twelve titles. Prelimiyiary Title. All the decrees of the Second Plenary Council remain in force except such as are abrogated or changed by the present council. Title i. Of the Catholic Faith. Title ii. Of Ecclesiastical Persons. — (i) Of bishops. When a see becomes vacant, the archbishop will call together the consultors and irremovable rectors of the diocese and they shaU choose three names which are to be forwarded to Rome and to the other bishops of the province. The latter shall meet to- gether and discuss the candidates. If they wish, they may reject all the names proposed by the clergy and substitute others, but they must give their reasons for this action when sending their recom- mendation to Rome. (ii) Of diocesan consultors. They should be six or at least four in number. If this" be impossible, however, two will suffice. The bishop chooses the consultors, half at his own option, the other half after nomination by the clergj'. The bishop should ask the advice of his consultors as to holding and promulgating a diocesan sjaiod; dividing parishes; committing a parish to religious; constitu- ting a committee for diocesan seminaries; choosing new consultors or examiners non-sviiodically; con- cerning transactions about church-property where the sum involved exceeds five thousand dollars; exacting new episcopal taxes beyond the limits desig- nated by the canons. Consultors hold office for tliree years and they may not be removed except for grave reasons. They are to vote collectively. When the episcopal see is vacant, the administrator must ask their counsel in all the above-mentioned cases. (iii) Of examiners of the diocesan clerg:J^ They are to be six in number. Their duties are principally to examine the junior clergj', and the candidates for irremo\-able rectorsliips. (iv) Of deans and vicars forane. The institution of these district officials is recommended to the bishops. It is ad- visalDle to bestow on them some faculties beyond what other rectors have and some honorary pre- eminence, (v) Of irremovable rectors. Parishes to have such rectors must have a proper church, a school for boys and girls, and revenues sufficiently staljle for the support of the priest, church, and school. In all dioceses every tenth rector should be irremova- ble if the requisite conditions are obtainable. The candidate for such rectorship must have been in the ministry ten years and showTi himself a satis- facton,' administrator in spirituals and temporals. He must also make a prescribed examination {con- cursus). An irremovable rector cannot be removed


from his office except for a canonical cause and ac- cording to the mode of procedure contained in the Instruction "Cum ilagnopere". (vi) Of the con- cursus. The examination for irremo\-able rectorships must take place before the bishop or vicar-general and three examiners. Candidates must reply to questions in dogmatic and moral theologj', liturgy, and canon law. They are also to give a specimen of catechetical exposition and of preacliing. The qualities of the candidates are also to be weighed in forming a judgment. The bishop is to give the vacant rectorship only to a candidate who has re- ceived the approving votes of the examiners, (vii) Of the diocesan clergy. 1. Priests ordained for a diocese are bound by oath to remain in it. 2. Alien priests bringing satisfactory testimonials from former bishops may be incardinated in a diocese only after a pro- bation of three or five years, and formal adscriplion by the ordinary. We may note that tliis council speaks of presumptive incardination also, but by a later Roman decree (20 July, 1898) that form of adscription is abrogated. 3. Infirm priests should be cared for. 4. Unworthy priests have no just claims to support, yet if they wish to amend, a house governed by regulars should be provided for them. (\-iii) Of clerical life and manners. Priests should make a spiritual retreat once every year, or at least every two years. They are exhorted to give them- selves to solid reading and study. They are to avoid conduct that can afford even the least suspicion of e\'il. They are not to bring an action against another cleric before a civil tribunal about temporal matters mthout wTitten permission of the bishop. As to ecclesiastical affairs, they are to remember that judgment pertains only to the church authorities, (ix) Of regulars. The provisions of the papal con- stitution '■ Romanes Pontifices " are extended to the United States. This constitution treats of the ex- emption of regulars from episcopal jurisdiction; of what concerns their ministry in a diocese; and of their temporal possessions. All controversies on these subjects are to be referred to the prefect of the Propaganda. Bishops are to recur to him also in matters concerning institutes of simple vows that are not diocesan but have their own superior-general. Diocesan Institutes, even having a rule approved by the Holy See, are entirely subject to the jurisdic- tion of the ordinarj-. Bishops are to see that the laws of enclosure (claiisura) are observed. Regula- tions are laid down for the ordinary and extraor- dinary confessors of nuns. Those who belong to re- ligious brotherhoods, whose members are forbidden to aspire to the priesthood, may not, after leaving such congregation, be ordained for any diocese without a dispensation from Rome.

Title iii, Of Divine Worship. — (i) Of celebrating Mass twice on the same day. (ii) Of uniformity in feasts and fasts. In future in all dioceses of this country there are to be the following six feasts of obligation and no others: The Immaculate Con- ception, Christmas, Circumcision of Our Lord (New Year's Day), Ascension, Assumption, and All Saints' Day. No "new dispositions are made as to fast days, (iii) Of the Lord's Day. The faithful are to be ex- horted to observe it properly, (iv) Of sacred music. Profane melodies are forbidden. The music should accord with the sacredness of time and place. Psalms are not to be curtailed at Vespers. The Mass must not be interrupted by the length of the choir-singing.

Title iv, Of the Sacraments. — (i) Of the baptism of converts. The ritual prescribed for their reception into the Church is to be observed, (ii) Of matrimony. Catholics who marrj- before a sectarian minister are excommunicated. "Mixed marriages are not to be contracted unless promises are given that the Catho- lic party is in no danger of perversion, and will strive to convert the non-jfcatholic party. Also that all