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the children born of the union are to be brought up Catholics. No dispensation from these promises can be given.

Title V, Of the Education of Clerics. — (i) Prepara- tory seminaries should be instituted. The pupils should be taught Christian Doctrine, English, and at least one other language according to the necessi- ties of the diocese. They must learn to speak and write Latin. Greek is also to be taught. The usual branches of profane learning, not omitting the natural sciences, as well as music and the Gregorian chant are to be part of the cmriculum. (ii) Of the greater seminaries. Judgment must be exercised in admitting aspirants to the priesthood and they must be zealously formed to \-irtue and learning. Two years are to be devoted to a pliilosopliical and four to a theological course. The faculty of theologj' is to embrace dog- matic and moral theology, Biblical exegesis, church historj', canon law, liturgj- and sacred eloquence. Great care must be taken in the selection of spiritual directors and professors for the students. Examina- tions are to be held semi-annually or annually in the presence of the bishop or vicar-general and the examiners of the dergj'. Students are to be warned to spend their vacations in a manner becoming the clerical profession. The temporal and spiritual administration of the seminarj' belongs principally to the bishop; he is to be aided by two commissions, one for spirituals and one for temporals, (iii) Of the principal seminary or university. The Fathers consider the times ripe for creating a Catholic uni- versity, and for tliis purpose they appoint a com- mission. The university is to be entirely under the management of the episcopate. The bishops should, however, continue to send some of their subjects to Rome, Louvain, and Innsbruck, as the new uni- versity is intended for postgraduate theological studies, (iv) Of the examinations of the junior clergy. For five years after ordination, priests must make an annual examination in Scripture, dogmatic and moral theology, canon law, church historj-, and lit- urg>'. (v) Of theological conferences. All priests having cure of souls must attend ecclesiastical meet- ings for the discussion of questions of doctrine and discipline. These conferences are to be held four times a year in urban and twice a year in rural dis- tricts.

Title \n. Of the Education of Catholic Youth, treats of (i) Catholic schools, especially parochial, viz., of their absolute necessity and the obligation of pastors to establish them. Parents must send their children to such schools unless the bishop should judge the reason for sending them elsewhere to be sufficient. AVays and means are also considered for making the parochial schools more efficient. It is desirable that these schools be free, (ii) Every effort must be made to have suitable schools of higher education for Catholic youth.

Title vii. Of Christian Doctrine. — (i) Of the office of preaching, (ii) A commission is appointed to prepare a catechism for general use. When pub- lished it is to be obligator)-, (iii) Of prayer books, (iv) Of books and newspapers. While objectionable writings are to be condemned. Catholics should oppose them also by orthodox newspapers and books.

Title viii. Of Zeal for Souls. — (i) Immigrants should be instructed by priests of their own language, (ii) A commission is appointed to aid the missions among Indians and Negroes, (iii) Censures against secret societies are to be made known to the faithful. If Rome has not condemned a particular society by name, it will belong only to a coramis.sion consisting of the archbishops of tlie country to decide whether it falls under the laws of forbidden organizations or not. If they cannot agree, the matter is to be referred to Rome. On the other hand. Catholic

societies, especially those of temperance, are to be encouraged.

Title ix. Of Church Property.— {i) The Church's right to hold property, (ii) The bishop is the guardian and supreme administrator of all diocesan property, (iii) Priests are diligently to guard parochial property under the direction of the bishop. If they do not request their salary at the proper time, they are supposed to have renounced their right to it. (iv) In choosing lay trustees only those members of the congregation have a voice, who, being twenty-one years of age, have fulfilled the paschal precept, have

Eaid for a seat in the church during the past year, ave sent their children to Catholic schools and belong to no prohibited society. The pastor is ex officio president of the board of trustees, (v) In all churches some seats must be set aside for the poor. Abuses incident to picnics, exctu-sions, and fairs are to be guarded against. Balls are not to be given for religious purposes. It is a detestable abuse to refuse the sacraments to those who will not contribute to collections. Bishops are to determine the stipend proper for ecclesiastical ministries. Foreign priests or religious cannot solicit alms in a diocese without the consent of the ordinary.

Title X, Of Ecclesiastical Trials. — (i) Every diocese is to have an episcopal tribunal, (ii) Its officials for disciplinary cases are to be a judge, fiscal procurator or chocesan attorney, attorney for the accused, and a chancellor. To those may be added an auditor, a notarj', and apparitors. For matrimonial cases the officials are to be an auditor, defender of the marriage tie, and a notary. The interested parties may also employ advocates. (iii) In criminal causes, the bishop, according as the law and case demand, may proceed either extra-judicially or judicially. This chapter describes the method to be employed in both instances.

Title xi. Of Ecclesiastical Sepulture. — Cemeteries should be properly cared for.

Title xii. The decrees of this council are binding as soon as they are promulgated by the Delegate Apos- tolic. At the request of the Fathers, the Holy See permitted the celebration in the United States of the feasts of St. Philip of Jesus, St. Turibius, and St. Francis Solano. It also granted to the bishops, under certain conditions, the power of alienating church goods without previously referring each case to Rome. The Fathers of this council signed the postulation for the introduction of the cause of beatification of Isaac Jogues and Ren6 Goupil, martyrs of the So- ciety of Jesus, and of Catherine Tegakwita, an Iro- quois virgin. This Third Plenary Council exhibits the actual canon law of the Church in the United States.

.icla et Decreta Cone. Plen. 1 (Baltimore. 1853); Ada el Decreta Cone. Plen. II (Baltimore. 1868); S.MITH, NoUs on Second Plenary Council (New York, 1874); Acta et Decreta Cone. Plen. Ill (Baltimore, 1886); Nd-les, Commentaria in Cone. Plen. Ill (Innsbruck, 18S8);

William H. W. Fanning.

Baltimore, PRO^^^■CIAL Councils of. — These councils have a unique importance for the Chm-ch in the United States, inasmuch as the earlier ones legis- lated for practically the whole territory of the Re- public, and furnished moreover a norm for all the later provincial councils of the country. This article touches on only those parts of the legislation which may seem in any way to individualize the discipline of the Church in the United States or depict the pe- culiar needs and difficulties of its nascent period.

I. The First Provincial Council was held in 1829 and was attended by one archbishop and four bishops. Its decrees refer to the enactments of two previous conventions which may be summarized briefly. Bishop Carroll's Diocesan Synod of 1791 decreed: (So. 3) The ceremonies of baptism need not be