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at Bamberg among them), and raised the standard of the olergj". But ahhough personally religious, in the political relations of the Church he jnelded in a measure to the prevailing tendencies of the Aiijkla- ning (illumination) movement of his day. Christoph Franz von Buseck (1745-1802) was the last Prince- Bishop of Bamberg. In 1796 he took refuge at Prague from the French invasion, and in 1799 at Saalfeld. He had only just returned, in 1802, when Bavaria seized his prince-bishopric; and in 1803 the delegates of the empire formally enacted the seculari- zation of Bamberg, and allotted it to be a possession of the Elector of Bavaria. All the provostships and monasteries were then suppressed, the university T\-as changed into the still extant lyceum, and the prince-bishop was pensioned.

Upon the death of von Buseck (ISOo) George Charles von Fechenbach, Bishop of Wiirzburg, ad- ministered the affairs of the diocese until 1808. After this the see remained vacant for ten years; the ecclesiastical government was carried on by a vicariate- general, consisting of a president and eight coun- sellors. The Concordat agreed upon between Bavaria and Rome in 1817 brought in a new era. Bamberg was made an archbishopric with boundaries as given at the beginning of this article. The first archbishop, Count Joseph von Stubenberg, previously Prince- Bishop of F.ichstatt, took possession of the archiepis- copal see of Bamberg in 1818 and administered both dioceses until liis death in 1824. Bishop von Stuben- berg deserves great credit for the manner in which he protected the property of the Catholic Church. He was followed by (1824-42) Joseph Maria, Freiherr von Fraunberg, who had been Bishop of Augsburg, (1842-58) Boniface Caspar von Urban, (1858-75) Michael von Deinlein, who founded a seminary for boys and encouraged Catholic associations and mis- sions among the people, (1875-90) Frederick von Schreiber, and (1890-1904) Joseph von Schork, a noted pulpit orator. Archbishop von Schork pro- moted missions (Volksmissionen) among the people, as well as charitable and social organizations among clergj' and laity. Frederick Philip von Abert (b. at Jliinnerstadt, 1 May, 1852) was appointed Arch- bishop, 30 Januarj', 1905.

EccLESi.\STic.\L Statistics. — ^The Archdiocese of Bamberg is divided into the arehiepiscopal com- missariat of the city of Bamberg and 20 rural dean- eries. The diocesan year-book for 1906 gives: 194 parishes and dependent stations; 35 curacies; 113 chaplaincies; 58 benefices; 583 churches and chapels; 406 secular clergj'; 29 regular clergj'; 788 Catholic parish schools; 23 Catholic district school inspectors; 202 local school inspectors. The cathedral chapter is composed of 1 provost, 6 deans, 10 canons, 1 hon- orarj' canon, and six curates. The secular priests have a clerical association {Foedus Ottonianum) with 320 members and a home for invalid priests; the association has also a retiring fund (Emeritenjonds) of S92,500. There are 7 houses of male orders, with 90 members, namely: 4 Franciscan with 17 priests and 29 brothers; 1 of Calced Carmelites with 5 priests, 3 clerics, and 7 brothers; 1 of Conventual Minorites, with 5 priests, 5 brothers, and 3 novices; 1 of Brothers of Charity, with 2 priests, 11 brothers, and three novices. The archdiocese contains a large number of houses of the female orders and congregations: 17 houses, in 8 localities, of the Engli-sh Ladies (Etiglische Fraukin) with 223 inmates; 13 houses of the Poor School-Sisters, with 123 inmates; 3 houses of the Franciscan Sisters, with 11 inmates, from the mother-house of Maria-Stern at Augsburg; 8 houses of the Tertiarj' Sisters of St. Francis, from Mallers- dorf, with 35 inmates; 8 houses of the Franciscan Sisters, from the convent of Dillingen with 43 inmates; 5 houses of Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul ■with 55 inmates; 17 houses in 10 localities contain-

ing 107 inmates, of the Sisters of the Most Holy Saviour from the mother-house at Oberbronn, with 107 inmates; 12 houses, with 32 inmates, of the Daughters of the Holy Redeemer from the mother- house at WUrzburg; 2 convents, with 11 inmates, of the Sisters of Oberzell; making a total of 85 houses with 640 female religious. For the training of the clergy there are an arehiepiscopal seminary for priests (50 students) and an arcliiepiscopal semi- nary for boys (75 pupils). The students of the semi- nary (Priesterseminar) are educated at the Royal Lj'ceum, which has philosophical and theological faculties and 9 clerical professors; the pupils of the seminary for boys' school {Knabensemi?iar) attend the two gj-mnasia of Bamberg in each of which an ecclesiastic acts as religious instructor (Religiotis- lehrer). The clergy have also charge of the von Aufsess seminary and home for Catholic students. The Franciscans have at Bamberg a seminary for students at the gjinnasia who wish to enter the order after completing their studies. Of the female congregations, the English Ladies conduct 3 Acade- mies and boarding-schools for girls, and 7 primary girls' schools; the other congregations conduct com- mon schools, housekeeping and industrial schools, and creches. The orders and congregations in the diocese have some 90 charitable institutions under their care, among these are: 15 alms-houses and in- firmaries; 12 hospitals; 22 creches; 15 centres for obtaining visiting nurses; 1 insane asylum; 4 homes for unemployed servants; 5 poor-houses, etc. Among the Catholic societies in the diocese may be men- tioned: 50 Associations for Workingmen and Mechan- ics; 14 Journeymen's Associations (Gesellenvereine); 7 Apprentices' Societies; 1 Workingwomen's and 1 Shopgirls' Association; the Ludwig-Mission Asso- ciation; the St. Boniface Association; the Christian Family -Association; the Society of Christian Mothers; the Catholic Men's Society, the People's Union for Catholic Germany, etc.

The most important ecclesiastical building of the diocese is the cathedral. The edifice erected by the Emperor Henrj' II, the Saint, was destroyed by fire in 1081 ; the new cathedral, built by St. Otto of Bamberg, was consecrated in 1111, and in the tliirteenth century received its present late-Romanesque form. It is about 309 feet long, 92 feet broad, 85 feet high, and the four towers are each about 266 feet high. Among the finest of its monuments is that to the Emperor Henrj' II and his Empress Kunigunde, considered the masterpiece of the sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider. Among other noteworthy churches of the city are the twelfth-centurj' church of the former Benedic- tine abbey of St. Michael and the upper parish church, a Gothic building dating from 1387. Among the noted churches of the diocese are those of the Four- teen Martyrs, Gossweinstein, and Mariaweiher — all places of pilgrimage; the Gothic church of Our Lady at Nuremberg, and the churches of the former abbeys of Banz and Ebrach.

LuDEWlG. Scriptores rentm episcopatus Bambergensis (Frank- fort and Leipzig, 1718); Schneidawind, StatUti^che Beschrei- bung det Horhslifls Bamberg (Bamberg, 1797); Ussehmanjj, Episcopatus Bambergensis (St. Blasien. 1802); Roppelt. His- iorisch-topographische Beschreibung des Hochstifts Bamberg (N ur- emberg. 1805); Jack. Geschichte der Provinz Bamberg, 1006- 180S (Bamberg, 1809-10); Idem, Beschreibung der Bibliothek zu Bamberg (Nuremberg, 1831-35); Idem. Bambergische JahrbUcher von 7it bis ISSS (Bamberg, 1829-34); von Strauss, Das Bistum Bamberg in sein^n drei urichligsten Epochen (Bamberg. 1823); Eisenmann, Geographische Beschreibung des Erzbistums Bamberg (Bamberg. 1833); Jaffe, Monumenta Bambergensia (Berlin, 1869); Weber, Geschichte der getehrten Schuten im Hochstift Bamberg 1007-180S (Bamberg, 1880-81); Idem. Der Kirchengesang im Fiirstbistum Bamberg (Cologne, 1893); Idem, Das Bistum und Krzbistum Bamberg (Bamberg, 1895); LoosHORN, Die Geschichte des Bistums Bamberg — brought down to 1729 (1880-1906, vols. I-III, Munich, vols. IV-VI. Bamberg); Leist. Bamberg (Bamberg. 1889); Uosel, Unter dem Krummstab. 2 Jahrhunderte Bamberger Geschichte (Bamberg, 1895); Pfister, Der Dom zu Bamberg (Bamberg. 1896); Wbosky, Die Bamberger Domskulpturen (Strasburg.