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1897,; Wild, Staat und U'irtschafl in den Bistiimem Bamberg und Wiirzburg (Heidelberg. 1904); ScheTnatismus der Geist- lidikeit dea Erzbislums Bamberg 1906 (Bamberg, 1906); Jah- resbericht iiber Bestand und Wirken dea Hiatoriscken Vereins Bamberg (Bamberg, 18— to 1905), 64 vols.

Joseph Lins.

Banaias (A. V. Benaiah; Kenrick, Banaiah; Heb. in'J3, also rTJ3. "Jehovah hath built up — Gesenius; Gr. Bavalas, Barafa; Lat. Banaias, Banaia), the name of .several men mentioned in the Bible. The orthography varies, but the component elements of the various forms are the same.

The most famous of all who bore the name was "the son of Joiada, the priest" — "the most valiant among the tliirty" — "captain of the third company for the third month" (I Par., xxvii, 5, 6). The mean- ing of the text is not clear; he seems to have been a priest and one of the principal officers at court. "Joiada, the son of Banaias" (I Par., xxvii, 34) may be a false reading, in which the names have been interchanged. Banaias is credited with three notable exploits tiiat required strength and courage: (a) He killed two lions, or perhaps brave warriors of Moab ("two lion-like champions of Moab" — Gesenius, s. v. iiNTN; in Gr. and Lat. the Heb. word is merely trans- literated, leaving the meaning doubtful); (b) he descended into a pit and there killed a lion; (c) he also vanquished and put to death an Egyptian hero of extraordinary size and great strength (H K., xxiii, 20, 21 =1 Par., xi, 22, 23). He commanded the "Cerethi and Phelethi", or "the king's guards" — D. V. footnote (II K., viii, 18; I Par., xviii, 17), or "Cerethites" and "Phelethites" (II K., xx, 23). The D. V. describes him as "the first among the thirty, but yet to the first three he attained not: and David made him of his council" (I Par., xi, 25). In II K., xxiii, 23, the Heb. text gives the same history, but the Gr. and the Lat. versions cause confusion by notable variations. The A. V. reads: "Behold, he was honourable among the thirty, but attained not to the first three: and David set him over his guard" (I Chron., xi, 25). This is from the Heb., but "guard" may be questioned (Gesenius renders the word by "a hearing, audience"). "The first among the thirty" (D. V.) is far from being exact (Jos., Ant., vii, 12).

Banaias supported Solomon's title to the throne against the ambitious intrigues of Adonias (III K., i, 32-38, 44), whom, by Solomon's command, he afterwards put to death (III K., ii, 25). He also executed Joab and succeeded liim as generalissimo (III K., ii, 34, 35); likewise Semei for having dis- obeyed Solomon (III K., ii, 46). For some Rabbinic literature, see Jew. Encijc. s. v.

John J. Tierney.

Bancel, Louis, b. at Valence, 1628; d. at Avignon, 1685. When very young he entered the Dominican Order at Avignon. Even before his ordination to the priesthood he was appointed lector of philosophy. He afterwards taught theology at Avignon. He was remarkable for his subtle intellect and pro- digious memory. He was the first to receive the appointment to the chair of theology in the Uni- versity of Avignon (1654). This chair he held till his death. He was elected several times Dean of the Theological Faculty and always presided at the public defence of the theses of the candidates for academical degrees. He was also Sjmodal Examiner of the Diocese of Avignon, and Prefect of the Avignon legation. He wrote: "Moralis D. Thomse, Doctoris Angelici ex omnibus ipsius operibus deprompta" (Avignon, 1677; Venice, 1723, 1757, 1758, 1780); and "Brevis universiE theologia; cursus" (.\vignon, 1684-92). As the author died while the third volume was in press, the editing of the work was finished by Joseph Patin, O. P. From the last tome was e.xpunged a thesis maintaining

as probable the salvation of unbaptized infants by the faith of their parents. Tlie impublished manuscripts of "Opus integrum de Castitate" and "Opus de veritate solius religionis Christianie" were left with the Dominicans at Avignon.

QuETiF AND EcH.\RD, ScHpt. Ord. Prfvd., n, 705: Hurteb, Nomenclator, II, 585; Marchand, L'universite d'Avignon aux XVII et XVIII nicies (Paris, 1900), 19.

M. A. Waldron.

Bandello, Matted, b. at Castelnuovo di Scri\'ia in Piedmont, Italy, in 1480; d. Bishop of Agen, France, in 1565. He entered the Order of .St. Dominic; but his life and writings bear slight traceof a religious char- acter (3 Vols. Lyons, 1554 passim; Vol. IV appeared in 1573). He is best known by his Xovellc, 214 in number. These tales show very considerable literary skill. But they are of no credit to the churchman. In many cases they are perverse descriptions of horrors and wickedness. Many of them were translated into English by Painter, and furnished themes to the dramatists of the Elizabethan period. It is by this means, most likely, that Shakespeare learned the story of Romeo and Juliet. The story of "Parisina" told by Bandello was later taken up by Byron. The best edition of the Novclle is that of Silvestri, Milan, 1813-14, in nine volumes. Some of them are con- tained in the second volume of the "Tesoro dei Novel- Ueri Italiani", Paris, 1847. Some were translated by Roscoe, in "Italian Novelists", III, (London, 1825).

QuETIF AND EcHARD, Script. Ord. Prfpd., II, 155; Landale, Beitr&ge zur Geach. der ital. Novelle (1875); Symo.nds, Renais- sance in Italy: DuxLocK, Hist, of Proae Fiction; Masi in Nuova Antologia, 1892; Spampinato, Matteo Bandello e le sue norelle (Nola, 1896). W. S. ReiLLY.

Bandinelli. See Alexander III.

Banduri, Anselmo, archaeologist and numisma- tologist, b. 1671 at Ragusa, off the coast of Dalmatia; d. at Paris, 4 January, 1743. He joined the Bene- dictines at an early age, studied at Naples, and was eventually sent to Florence, then a flourishing centre of higher studies. Here he made the ac- quaintance of the famous Benedictine scholar Mont- faucon, then travelling in Italy, in search of manu- scripts for his edition of the works of St. John Chrysostom. Banduri rendered him valuable ser- vices and in return was recommended to Duke Cosmo III as a proper titular for the chair of eccle- siastical history in the Universitj^ of Pavia. It was also suggested that the young Benedictine be sent to Paris for a period of preparation, and especially to acquire a sound critical sense. After a short sojourn at Rome, Banduri arrived at Paris in 1702 and entered the Abbey of Saint Germain des Pres, as a pensioner of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He soon became an apt disciple of the French Maurists and began an edition of the anti-iconoclastic WTitings of Nicephorus of Constantinople, of the nTitings of Theo- dore of Mopsuestia, and of other Greek ecclesiastical authors. Banduri never published tliese works, though as late as 1722 he announced, as near at hand, their appearance in four folio volumes. In the meantime, he was attracted by the rich treasures of Byzantine manuscript and other material in the BibUotheque Royale and the Bibliotheque Colbert. In 1711 he published at Paris his "Imperium Orientale, sive Antiquitates Constant inopolitanae", etc., a docu- mentary illustrated work on the Byzantine Empire, based on medieval Greek manuscripts, some of which were then first made known. He also defended himself successfully against Casimir Oudin, an ex- Premonstratensian, whose attacks were made on a second-hand knowledge of Banduri's work. In 1718 he published, also at Paris, two folio volumes on the imperial coinage from Trajan to the last of the Pala^ologi (98-1453), "Numismata Imperatorum Romanorum a Trajano Decio usque ad Palaeologos Augustos" (supplement by Tanini, Rome, 1791). Of this work Father Eckhel, S.J., prince of numis'