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BASCELONA


2S9


BABCELONA


History. — Barcelona is one of the most ancient aties of Spain, and the most important after the lapital. Founded by Hamilcar in the ancient region )f Laletana. it was in the possession of the Cartha- rinians until they were driven out of Spain, when it )assed under the power of the Romans, who favoured t in many ways. Juhus C:psar bestowed on it the lame of Julia Auffu.sta Favetitia in recognition of the iupport given him in his struggle with Pompey; ater he made it a Roman colony and gave it the jus [Mtii. wliich conferred on the inhabitants, although itill belonging to Hispania Tarraconensis, the full privileges of Roman citizenship. The city remained luimportant until Ataulf, King of the" Visigoths.

hose it for his residence (415). Later it passed

successively into the hands of the Arabs (713) and

he Franks (SOI). Finally, Wilfrid the Hairy- de-

clared his independence and gave the Spanish March. .ir the Marca Hispanica, as the Franks had called it.

he name of the Coimty of Barcelona. It remained

inder the independent government of its own counts jntil the marriage of Petronilla. daughter of Ramiro

he Monk, with the Count of Barcelona (1137) united

Axagon and Catalonia. After 1164, when Petronilla resigned in favour of her son Alfonso, the two states formed but one kingdom.

Barcelona, being situated on the shores of the Mediterranean and on the miUtarj- road between Spain and France, was comparatively easy of access, lud the Gospel was preached there by the immediate iisciples of the Apostles. The See of Barcelona, im- like most very ancient sees, whose origins are ob- scure, has preserved catalogues of its bishops from Apostohc times, and although all the names given cannot be admitted as authentic, the greater num- ber are handed down in all the catalogues. In the twelfth centurj- the diocese was restored by Ramon Berengar, Cotmt of Barcelona, since which time the succession of bishops has been uninterrupted.

In the long line of bishops we find many illustrious aames. St. Severus. a native of the city, was mar- tyred by Dacianus in the reign of Diocletian. St. Pacianus (360-390) is famous for the clearness and spirituality of his doctrinal writings: in chapter cvi jf his "De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis", St. Jerome praises the chaste hfe of Pacianus. his eloquence, and lis writings on baptism and penance, also those igainst heretics, particularly the Novatians. St. OUgarius, noted for the great purity of his hfe. was the first metropolitan of this province. Bishop [Jrquinaona was revered for his great charity; one jf the handsomest plazas of Barcelona is still called 3y his name. Among the saints of this diocese ire: the famous virgin, St. Eulalia, a martyr of the third centurj", whose relics are preserved in a rich ihrine in the crypt of the cathedral; Sts. Juliana ind Sempronia, %-irgins and martyrs; the African saints. Cucuphas and Fehx, martj-red in the city of Barcelona; St. Raj-mund of Pennafort, founder of the Order of Mercy for the Redemption of Captives, wnfessor of Gregorj- IX (1227-41), and compiler of the famous "Decretals, in which he collected the scattered decrees of popes and councils.

Councils of Barcelona. — Many councils and assem- blies of Spanish bishops were held in Barcelona, two provincial councils in the ^'isigotluc period. The Srst (c. 540), at which the metropohtan and six bishops assisted, promulgated ten canons, ordaining that the Miserere should be said before the Canticle: that in the Vespers and Matins the benediction should be given to the people; that clerics sliould not wear the hair long or shave their beards; that penitents should wear the hair short, put on a religious garb, md devote their time to prayer; that the "beatific benediction" should be given to the sick so that the}- could receive Holy Communion, and that the decrees of the Coimcil of Chaleedon (451) with regard II.— 19


to monks should be observed. At the Second Pro- \-incial Council (c. 599), attended by the metropohtan and twelve bishops, four canons were promulgated, the first and second proliibiting any fee for Holy orders and for the chrism used for Confirmation; the third and fourth commanding the observation of the canons referring to those awaiting Holy orders, and excommunicating those who, after ha\-ing maile a vow of chastity and changed their secular dress for the religious garb, should contract a carnal marriage, even if a woman had been forced by violence, unless she immediately separated from the one who had violated her; a similar excommunication was also pronoimced on those who married after they had received the "blessing of penance" {benediciio pcenitentia^). i. e. penitents who had taken an addi- tional vow of continency. Other cotmcils were also held there: that of 1125, presided over by St. Ole-


garius, the Metropohtan and Bishop of Barcelona; that of 1339 to decide in the matter of the subsidies asked from the clergj'; that of 1377. a quasi-plenary council; that of 1387, on the occasion of the ^\estem Schism, which proclaimed legitimate the election of Clement VII; those of 1417, 1517, and 1564 which are of no special importance. In 1904 the Congrcso Hispano-Americano de las Conijregaciones Maruina.i was held at Barcelona and was attended by thousands of persons for the purpose of making miifomi laws for this congregation and that of the Lui.^es.

Montiinents. — -Among the many monuments of the city, the most important is the cathedral, built in the early days of the Church in honour of the Holy Cross. It was rebuilt by order of Berengar I, the Old, Coimt of Barcelona, and his wife, Doria Almodis, and consecrated in 1058. In the thirteenth centurj' it was enlarged, and was finally completed in 1338. It is Gothic in style, one of its most notable features being the "door of the Inquisition", a beautiful piece of work composed of small columns and point«d arches on a diminishing scale, which