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conceals the jasper steps that lead to the sanctuary. The facade La Piedad, composed of graceful pointed arches, is one of the purest examples of Spanish Gothic. The church of St. Severus unites in its fagade all the architectural charms of the fifteenth centuiy in which it was built; its main tabernacle is noted for the rich carving of its pointed arches; its chapel of St. Eulalia is exceedingly dehcate and beautiful. The church of Santa Ana has two pictures by Juncosa. The ancient church of Santa Maria del Mar is also a beautiful specimen of Gothic architec- ture. Santa Maria del Pino has the most spacious and lofty nave of all the Gothic churches in Barcelona. The church of Sts. Justo and Pastor was the first dedicated to the worship of the true God in Barcelona. Judging from its present appearance, the unfinished Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia, built from the alms of the faithful, will be the finest ecclesiastical edifice in Barcelona. The famous sanctuary of Monserrat is outside the city. Apart from its an- tiquity and religious interest, it is remarkable for its wealth of precious stones, and for the beautiful chapels representing the mysteries of the Rosary; all these are modern and are an e\'idence of the piety of the faithful. The Diocese of Barcelona also possesses archives of great value in which many precious documents, saved from the Almohad conquest under Almanzor (1184-98), are preserved, as well as the priceless books called Exemplaria, wherein are chronicled ecclesiastical functions, oaths of kings, and other notable events, which make them the best source of information for the history of Catalonia.

Charity and Education. — It would be difficult to find in Spain another city where Christian charity is manifested in more ways than in Barcelona. Besides many general and private hospitals in the city, there exist a multitude of asylums for all classes of persons maintained by religious congregations and pious associations. Notable among them is the girls' orphan asylum of San Jos6 de la Montaiia. The asylum and maternity home (casa de ladancia) of Bressol, for the children of labourers, takes care annually of 1,200 healthy and 2,300 sick children. The asylum of La Sagrada Familia cares for about 300 children of working mothers. The asylum of La Madre de Dios del Carmen of Hostafranchs, besides sheltering about 600 children and old per- sons, has a pious association especially for arranging marriages between persons who have been living together illegally, and legitimizing the children; in one year it procured 120 such marriages. The asylum of St. Raphael is for scrofulous children, and the asylum Del Parqvie relieves annually 94,234 poor, and provides sleeping accommodations for 20,000 poor annually. The house of the Good Shepherd shelters about 300 young women rescued from houses of ill fame. The asylum of the Visita- tion assists yomig women who are in want, and in the nineteen years of its existence has preserved the purity and virtue of more than 3,000 young women. There are between forty and fifty other institutions for charitable purposes, among them the Duriin asylum for incorrigible boys. Two have for their object the distribution of food and the serving of meals to working-men; one distributed 117,125 free rations in one year, and the other fed about 300 work- ing-men daily. The Mantes Pios of Nuestra Senora de la Es)>pranza. of Barcelona, of Santa Madrona, and of Nuostra Seiiora de Monserrat, are societies for the aid of female domestics and working-men. An as- sociation of fathers of families has in one year pre- vented the publication of 45,000 obscene books and photographs.

In adilition to the diocesan seminary, there are Christian Doctrine classes attended by 6,000 children, and Suiulay Schools, super^'ised by IGl young ladies.

where over 2,000 women receive instruction, and are thus prevented from attending public dance-halls. Connected with each of the asyhmis before mentioned is one or more schools; the religious orders conduct free schools attended by 12,000 boys and girls. There are 8 colleges, under the Jesuits, the Piarists, and other religious orders.

A number of Catholic periodicals are published in the diocese: the " Boletin Eclesidstico de la Diocesis", the "Revista Popular", founded and directed by Dr. Sarda y Salvany, author of the famous book "Liberalismo es Pecado", which has been translated into many languages; the "Comentarius Scholaris", published by the diocesan seminaiy students; " ."Vnales del culto A San Jos6"; the "Mensajero del Nino Jesus de Praga"; ".'^nales de Nuestra Seiiora del Sagrado Corazon"; "La Montana de San Jose", official organ of the association; "El Boletin Sale- siano"; "Las Misiones Catolicas"; "La Hormiga de Oro"; "La Revista Social"; and "Los Estudios Franciscanos". "El Correo Cataldn" is the only strictly Catholic newspaper. It has the blessing of the sovereign pontiff, and coxmts many of the clergy among its contributors.

Statistics. — There are 231 parishes, 13 archipres- bj-terates, 1.180 secular priests, 360 regular clergy, and 89 religious communities. In 1906 the popula- tion, nearly all Catholic, was 1,054,531.

V. DE L.1 FuENTE, Hist. Ec". dc Espono (Madrid. 1875); VlLLANUEVA, Viage litfrario d las iglesias de Espana (Madrid, 1803-52), XVII, 128-226; XVIII. 1-83, and_passtm; FLtfnEz, Espaila Sagrada (Madrid, 1754 sqq.). XXVIII-XXIX; Aymerich, Nomina et Acta ep. Bare, (ibid., 1700); Gams, Kircheng. Spaniens (Ratisbon, 1874), II, ii; Espana Ec^. (Madrid, 1902). IV; Coleccion de documentos hist. (Barcelona, 1893-95); Alb6 y Marti, The Chanties of Barcelona (Spanish, ibid., 1901).

TiRso L6pez.

Barcelona, LTniversity of. — ^This was an oiit- growth of the ecclesiastical schools founded in the eleventh century. To these were added graduallj the chairs held by the Dominicans in their convent and those established in the Aeademia by the Kings of Aragon. In 1430, the to'mi council of Barcelona took measures for the founding of a Stiidimn Generali in order to prevent the migration of their young mer to Lerida and to the foreign universities of Paris Toulouse, and Bologna. But the university as sucl dates from 1450, the year in which its charter wa.' granted by Alfonso V of Aragon and confirmed bj the Bull "Constitutus in Speculo" of Pope Nichola; V. The pope conferred upon the new university al the privileges enjoyed by the I'niversity of Toulouse and authorized the erection of chairs in theology canon and civil law, arts, and medicine. The yoimj institution had to struggle with all sorts of diffi- culties. For nearly a century it had no building; adapted to its purposes. In 1544, however, it enterec upon a new era, with suitable structures and equip ment, and in 1567 it received the richly endowec priory of St. Ann, formerly helil by the Order of St John. The teaching of grammar and rhetoric wa.' entrusted to the Jesuits (1576) and the diocesai seminary was affiliateil to the university (1568). Ii 1714 the Faculties, with the exception of that o medicine, were transferretl to Cervera. Bj' roya decree of Charles III, a college of surgery was estab lished at Barcelona in 1764. The Faculties returnee from Cervera to Barcelona in 1823, and in 1837 thi new university was formally inaugurated. It with stood the disturbances that occurred in 1840 anc 1856, passed under State control in 1857, and was pro vided with additional buildings (1863-73). At pres ent it has five Faculties: philosophy and letters, law science, medicine, and pharmacy, with 56 instructor and 1,900 students. The Archives of the Crown o Aragon, foimded in 13-16, contain 3,759,314 docu ments, and the library about 2,000 manuscripts.