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A FuENTE. HUtoria de las Universidades (Madrid. 1884), \; Zarate, De la Instmccidn Piiblica en Espafia (Madrid, 1855); Rashdall. Universities of Europe iv the M. A. (Oxford, 1895), II, Pt. 1, 94.

E. A. Pace.

Barcena (also B.vrzana), Alonzo de, a native 3f Baeza in Andalusia, Spain, b. 1528; d. at Cuzco, Peru. 15 Januarj', 1598. He became a Jesuit in 1565, and went to Peru in 1569. He was first destined for the missions of Huarochiri, whence he was ordered (1577) to Juli, on the shores of Lake Titicaca in Southern Peru. He became one of the founders of this important mission. Barcena remained in Central Bolivia for eleven years, when the Provincial Atienza sent him to Tucuman in Argentina. His work among the various tribes of that region and of Paraguay continued until 1593, when he was made (Dommissary of the Inquisition in those pro\-inees. Exhausted physically by his long and arduous labours, Barcena died at Cuzco in Peru. He is credited with having had a practical knowledge of eleven Indian languages and with having written grammars, vocabularies, catechisms in most of them. These manuscripts are possibly still in the archives of Lima. Only one of his writings is known to have been published: a letter full of important ethnographic and linguistic detail, on the Indians of Tucuman, on the Calchaquis, and others. The letter (see below), published in 1885, is dated 8 September, 1594, at Asuncion in Paraguay, and is addressed to the Provin- cial Juan Sebastian.

\L.\NCHA, Cordnica moralizada (Lima, 163S), I; LozANO, Historui de la Compafiia de Jesus de la provincia del Paraguay (Madrid, 1755); Idem, Descripcidn del Gran Chaco (Cordova, 1733): Lorenzo Hervas, Calalogo delle Lingue conosciuti e noticia delta lore affinita e diversita (Foligno, 1784); Charle- voix, Histoire du Paraguay (Paris. 1757); Saldamando, An- tiguos Jesuitas del Peru (Lima, 1882); Relaci^nes geogrdficas de Indias (Madrid, 1885), II, contain.s the Carta de P. Alonso de Barzana, de la CompaMa de Jesus, at P. Juan Sebastian, su Provincial, the letter mentioned above (.Appendix 30, III). LroEwiG, The Literature of American Aborimrial Indians (London, 1858), 76, mentions a work of Father Barcena under the title of Lexica et prtrcepta grammatica, item liber confes- sionis et precum in quingue Indorum Linguis (Peru, 1590); it is probably one of the manuscripts alluded to above. The title is taken from Sotwell, Bibliotheca Societatis J'jsu (Rome, 1676).

Ad. F. B.\jjdelier.

Barclay, John, author of the political novel Argenis" and other Latin works in prose and verse, was b. 28 January, 1582, at Pont-a-Mousson; d. in Rome, August, 1621. His father was William Bar- clay (q. v. infra). John Barclay received his early schooling from the Jesuits, and at the age of nineteen he published a commentary on the "Thebais" of Statins. In 1603 father and son, perhaps attracted by the union of the Scotch and English crowns, tried their fortunes in London. The son dedicated to James his " Euphormionis Lusinini Satyricon". Af- ter a brief stay in France, John returned to England in 1605.

He married a brilliant and clever Frenchwoman, and was again in London in 1606. He published, in Paris, 1607, the second part of his "Satyri- con" and about the same time his poems, under the title "Sylvae", and a narrative of the Gunpowder Plot (Enghsh translation, Oxford, 1634). His pub- lication in 1609 of his father's work, " De Potestate Papa", which denied the temporal jurisdiction of the pope over princes, and his declaration therewith that lie would defend his father's memory, led to a prolonged controversy, in which his known opponents were Bellarmine and a Jesuit, Andreas Euda?mon Joannes. A further series of polemics was occa- sioned by his " Apologj'" (1611) for the "Satyricon". in which he attacked the Jesuits and his father's former patron, the Duke of Lorraine. In his " Icon Animorum", a fourth part of the "Satyricon" (London, 1614), he described the character and manners of the European nations, mentioning Scot-

land with special affection. In 1615 a volume of his poems appeared in London.

In England Barclay received occasional help from the king and the Earl of SaUsbury, and won the friendship of Isaac Casaubon, Ralph Thorie, and especially, in 1606, of du Peiresc, an attache of the French Embassy and a patron of learning In 1616 Barclay, at the in\Ttation of Paul V, went to Rome, where he was welcomed by Bellarmine and pensioned by the pope. Perhaps to prove his Cathohc loyalty he published in 1617 his "Parnncsis ad Sectarios". Completing in July, 1621, liis Latin novel "Argenis", he died in the following month. The facts as to the removal of his monument and inscription from St. Onofrio have been perhaps permanently obscured by partisan di.spute. His friend Ralph Thorie pub- hshed an elegj- in 1621. Barclay was admired by his contemporaries for his honesty, his rare courtesy, and a conversational charm that owed something to grave irony. His varied learning and talents made him a formidable opponent.

The most important of Barclay's writings, the "Argenis", published by du Peiresc at Paris, 1621, has been admired by RicheHeu, Leibnitz, Jonson, Grotius, Pope, Cowper, Disraeh. and Coleridge. This work is a long romance which introduces the leading personages of international importance. To it were indebted, in whole or in part, F^nelon's "T^l^maque", du Ryer's tragi-comedy "Argenis et Poliarque", Calderon's "Argenis y Poliarco ", an Italian play "Argenide", by de Cruylles, and a German play by Christian Weysen, 1684. The "Argenis" was soon translated into French, Spanish, and German. Enghsh translations appeared as fol- lows: by Kingsmill Long, London, 1626; by Sir Robert Le Grys and Thomas May, London, 1629, and in 1772, under the title of "The Phoenix", by Clara Reeve. Ben Jonson in 1623 entered a transla- tion at Stationers' Hall. There have been transla- tions into Italian, Dutch, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Swedish, and Icelandic. An English translation, by Thomas May. of the fourth part of the "Satyricon", imder the title. "The Mirror for Minds ", was printed in London, 1633.

Portraits of Barclay may be found in the first edition of the "Argenis", in the volume of 1629 of Le Grys and May, and in the later work of Collignon.

Garnett in Diet. Nat. Bing., s. v.; Gillow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., s. v.; Hailes, Life of John Barclay (Edinbiu-gh, 1786); Barclay, poems in Delitice Poetarum Scotorutn; Boucher, Latin Dissertation on Argenis (Paris, 1874); Dupond, L' Argenis de Jean Barclay (Paris, 1875); Dukas, Bibliographic du Satyri- con de J. B. (Paris, 1880); Collignon, Azotes sur V Euphormion de J. B. (Paris, 1901); Idem, Notes Hist., Litt., et Bibliogra- phiques sur IWrgenis de J. B. (Paris, 1902); Schmid, Barclay's Argenis — with bibliography and key (Munich, 1903).

J. V. Crowne.

Barclay, William, Scottish Jurist, b 1546; d. at Angers, France, 3 July, 1608. He was of a good Aberdeenshire family, and studied first at Aberdeen University and later, ha\'ing emigrated to I'rance like so many of the Catholic youth of Scotland at that time, under eminent teachers at Paris and Bourges. In 1578, on the recommendation t.f his uncle, Ednumd Hay, first rector of the newly founded University of Pont-a-Mousson, he was appointed to the chair of civil law there by the Duke of Lorraine, who made him also dean of the faculty of law and a councillor of state. Tliree years later he married Anne de Malleviller, a lady of an honourable Lorraine family. Barclay published in IfiOO his largest work, " I)e Regno et Regali potestate", in defence of the rights of kings, against Buchanan and other WTiters. The doctrines laid down in this book, which was dedicated to Henry IV, are discussed at length by Locke in his "Civil Government". After twenty-five years' tenure of his profes.sorship, Barclay resigned his chair in 1603 and returned to England, where the