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new monarch, James I, was inclined to welcome with favour one who had so learnedly asserted the views on the Divine right of kings which he himself held. Barclay's fidelity, howeverj to the Catholic religion stood in the way of his advancement, and, rejecting the king's offer of a lucrative appointment on condi- tion that he renounced his faith, he returned to France. An offer was immediately made to the renowned jurist to accept the professorship of law in the University of Angers, which had been vacant for some years. In 1605 he pubUshed at Paris an elaborate work on the Pandects, dedicated to King James. Barclay mentions in this work his intention to write a book about the king, but he never lived to publish it. He was buried at the Cordeliers Church at Angers. His most famous work, "De Potestate Papae", directed against the pope's au- thority over kings in temporal matters, appeared in 1609, with a preface wTitten by his son. Cardinal Bellarmine published a rejoinder to it. (See Bar- clay, John.)

Irving, Lives of Scottish Writers, I, 210-233; Menage, Remarques sur la rie de Pierre Ayvault (1675), 228-230; Mac- kenzie, Writers of the Scots Nation (1722), III, 468, 478; Otto, Thesaurus Juris Romani, III.

D. O. Hunter-Bl.vir.

Barco Centenera, M.\rtin del, b. 1535, at Logrono, in the Diocese of Plasencia of Estremadura (Spain); died c. 1602. He became a secular priest and in 1572 accompanied, as chaplain, the expedi- tion of Juan Ortiz de Zdrate to the Rio de La Plata. For twenty-four years he followed the vicissitudes of Spanish exploration in the Argentine with un- daunted courage, and was made archdeacon of the church of Paraguay. In 1582 he went to Lima and acted as secretary to the third council held in that city. He returned to Europe, where he finished his poetical work, known as "La Argentina", which he dedicated to the Viceroy of Portugal (for Philip III of Spain). It appeared in 1602. Soon after, del Barco died. The poetic merit of the "Argentina" is slender, like that of all the epics composed about his time on American subjects. It is a work of ponderous rhyme. But its historical value is con- siderable. He describes nearly a quarter of a century of Spanish efforts in the Argentine and ad- jacent countries, of which he was mostly an eye- witness, and thus fills a considerable blank in our knowledge of the history of that period, otherwise but little known. He also alludes to the English piracies committed by Drake and Cavendish, and to events of importance in Peru during the admin- istration of the Viceroy Toledo. Several of the violent earthquakes of the time are also mentioned and described, though not always with correctness in regard to dates.

Le<3n t Pinelo. Epitome (1629-173S); NicOL.ts Antonio, Bib. Hisp. nova (Madrid, 1786); Babcia, Historiadores primi- tivos de Ijidias, 1749 (reprint oiF the Argentina; a later reprinl appeared in De Angelis's collection); La Argentina, Conquista del Rio de la Plata y Tucuman (in 28 Cantos, Lisbon. 1602); Mendiburij, Diccionario historico biogrdfico (Lima, 1876), II.

Ad. F. B.\ndelier.

Barcos, Martin de, a French theologian of the Jansenist School, b. at Bayonne, 1600; d. at St. Cyran, 167S. He was a nephew of du Vergier de Hauranne, Abbot of St. Cyran, who sent him to Belgium to be taught by Jansen. When he returned to France he served for a time as tutor to the son of Amauld d'Andilly and later, 1644, succeeded his imcle at the .\bbey of St. Cyran. He did much to improve the abbey; new buildings were erected, the library much increased, and the strictest rule en- forced. Unlike many commendators of his day who scarcely ever saw the abbeys over which they held authority, Barcos became an active member of St. Cyran, was ordained priest 1647, and gave himself up to the rigid asceticism preached by his sect. His

friendship with du Vergier and Amauld and, through them, with Port-Royal soon brought him to the front in the debates of Jansenism. He collaborated with du Vergier in the " Petrus AureUus" and with Amauld in the book on "Frequent Communion".

Of liis own treatises, some bear on authority in the Church and some on the then much-mooted ques- tions of grace and predestination. To the first class belong (1) " De I'autorit^ de St. Pierre et de St. Paul" (1645). (2) "Grandeur de I'Eghse de Rome qui repose sur I'autorite de St. Pierre et de St. Paul" (1645). (3) " Eclaircissements sur quelques objec- tions que Ton a form^es contre la grandeur de I'Eglise de Rome" (1646). These three books were written in support of an assertion contained in the book "On Frequent Communion", namely: "St. Peter and St. Paul are the t%vo heads of the Roman Church and the two are one". This theory of dual church authority, irapljnng an equaUty of the two Apostles, was condemned as heretical by Pope Innocent X, in 1674 (Denzingcr, Enchiridion, 965).

To the second class belong (1) A censure of Sir- mond's " Praedestinatus " (1644). (2) " Quae sit Sancti Augustini et doctrinae eius auctoritas in ecclesia?" (1650). Barcos holds that a proposition clearly founded on St. Augustine can be absolutely ac- cepted and taught, regardless of a papal Bull. That exaggeration of the African Doctor's authority was, from the beginning of the controversy, the main prop of the Jansenists who read in St. Augustine what they pleased and then claimed immunity from the authority of the Church. This new error was condemned by Pope Alexander VIII, 1690 (Cf. Denzinger, no. 1187). (3) " E.xposition de la foy de I'Eglise romaine toucliant la sTa.ce et la predestina- tion" (1696). This book was written at the request of the Jansenist Bishop of Aleth, Pavilion, and may be looked upon as the official expos^ of Jansenism. It was condemned by the Holy Office, 1697, and again 1704, when it was published with the "In- structions sur la grace" of Antoine Amauld.

Hurter, Nomenclator, II (Innsbruck, 1893): Migne, Diet, de biog. chret. (Paris. 1851): Jungmann in Kirchenlex., I, 1994; Beard, Port-Royal (London, 1861); Fuzet, Les Jansenistea (Paris, 1876); Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal (Paris, 1878).

J. F. Sollier.

Bard, Henry, Baron Bromley and ■ Viscount Bell.^.mont, an English soldier and diplomat, b. 1604; d. 1660. He was the son of the Reverend George Bard, Vicar of Staines, Middlesex, England, a representative of an old Norfolk family. He was educated at Eton, and in 1632 entered King's Col- lege, Cambridge, where he took the Master's degree and a fellowship. Before this date he had travelled considerably, ha\ing \isited Paris, and journeyed on foot tlirough France, Italy, Turkey, Palestine, and Egj'pt. It is alleged that during his sojourn in the last country he surreptitiously got pocsession of a copy of the Koran which was the property of one of the mosques, and which he appropriated and after- wards presented to his college.

Bard's habits of fife were expensive, the liberality and generosity of liis wealthy brother, Maximilian, enabhng him to indulge them. His accomplishments included the knowledge of several languages and. coupled with his experience as a traveller and a wide knowledge of men and events, served to commend him to Charles I, with whom he became a favourite, and whose policy throughout the Civil War he sus- tained as a strong partisan. He was one of the earliest to take up arms in the king's behalf, obtain- ing through the queen a colonel's commission. He distinguished himself at York, and at the battle of Cheriton Down, was severely wounded, lost an arm, and was taken prisoner. In May of 1646 he received his discharge and on again joining the king received the reversionary grant of the office of Governor of the