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(3d ed., Antwerp, 1727, 4 vols.). Its preface contains a good study of the early criticism of the "Annals". To the original twelve volumes of the "Annals" there have been addetl continuations in the style of Baronius. The most worthy are those of the three Oratorians: Eaynaldus, ablest of the continuators, who with material accumulated by Baronius carried the history to the j'ear 1565 (Rome, 1646-77, 9 vols.); Laderchi, who continued it thence to 1571 (Rome, 1728-37, 3 vols.); and August Theiner, to 1583 (Rome, 1856). Less notable are the continuations of the Polish Dominican, Bzovius, 1198 to 1571 (Cologne, 1621-30, 9 vols.), and the French bishop, Sponde, 1198 to 1647 (Paris, 1659). There is a good study of the work of the continuators by Mansi in the Bar-le-Duc edition of Baronius, XX, pp. iii-xi. Many epitomes of the work have been made, the best being that of Sponde (Cologne, 1690. 2 vols.). As an exemplar of recent scientific working of a small portion of the field covered by Baronius may be cited, Rauschen, ^' Jahrbiicher der Christlichen Kirche miter dem Kaiser Theodosius dem Grossen. Versuch einer Erneuerung der Annales Ecclesiastici des Baronius far die Jahre 378-395" (Freiburg im Br., 1897). The best editions of Baronius are those of Lucca (1738-59,38 vols.) and Bar-le-Duc (1864-83,37 vols.); the former contains the continuations of Raynald and Laderchi, the critique of Pagi and others, and is enriched by the notes of Archbishop Mansi; the latter contains what is best in the former and the editorial additions of Father Theiner, whose con- tinuation was to be included. Publication was sus- pended with the historj' of the year 1571. Baronius published many lesser works, most of which found place in the "Annals". His life of St. Gregory Nazianzen is in Acta SS., XV, 371-427.

Materials for the life of Baronius are found in an unfinished lAfe in Buccio's MS. preser\-ed in the Roman Oratory; the extant correspondence etc. has been gathered by Alberi- Cius, Yen. Casaris Baronii . . . Epistolcr, Opuscula , . . Vita

De CfBaaris Baronii Litterar im Br., 1903). The older Lives, ba.«ed largely on Bcccio, and the references Baronius makes to his work in the Annals are by SpoNDt in his £pi(o?nc; Barnaeeo (Vienna, 1718); and Eicci (Rome. 1745); Sarra. Vila del Venerahile Card. Ces. Baronio (Rome, 1862); Le Febvre, Vie de Card. Baronius (Douai, 1868); Kerr, Life of Ceaare Card. Baronius (London, 1898); Capecelatro-Pope, Life of St. Philip Ntri (London, 1882), I, 316-321; II, 1-31, S29-S30.

Adverse criticism of Baronius; CASArBoN, Exercitationes (Geneva. 1654), cf. Pattison, leaac Casaubun (O.xford, 1892). 315-341 — shallow and extreme; Cave, Historia Littraria Scriptor. Eccl. (London, 1868), XXV'-XXVI; Bowling, In- troduction to Critical Study of Eccl. History (London, 1838), 105-128.

John B. Peterson.

Baronius, Justus. See CAL\nN, Justus.

Barquisimeto (de Barquisimeto), Diocese of, in Venezuela, South America. The city is the capital of the State of Lara, is about 161 miles south- west of Caracas, and contains about 30,000 inhabi- tants, though some authorities give a lower figure. Founded in 15.52 by the Spaniards, under the name of Nueva Segovia, Barquisimeto is one of the oldest Spanish possessions in South America. In 1812 it was almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake. The Diocese of Barquisimeto was erected in 1847, comprising the three States of Lara, Carabobo, and Falcon. By a decree of the Congregation of the Con- sistory, 12 February, 1907, the episcopal residence was transferred to Valencia (38,654), in the State of Carabobo, and the boimdaries of the diocese rear- ranged. It is now boimded on the north and west by the Caribbean Sea, on the south by the Diocese of Merida (or the State of Trujillo), on the east by the State of Calabozo and the two dioceses of Zamora, and (iuiana. The diocese contains 528,215 Catholics, 68 priests, and 110 churches and chapels.

Battandier, ylnn. p<m(.ca(A. (Paris, 1906), 198; Misaiones Cntholicoe 'Propaganda, Rome. 1907).

U. Benigni.

Barradas, Sebastiao, a Portuguese exegete and preacher, b. at Lisbon in 1543; d. at Coimbra in 1615. In 1558 he entered the Society of Jesus. He was professor of Scripture for many years at Coimbra and Evora and preached with such zeal that he was styled the Apostle of Portugal. He published two works: (1) "Commentaria in concordiam et his- toriam evangelicam" (4 vols., Coimbra, 1599-1611). This work, which is a treasure house for preachers on the Gospels, was frequently reprinted in Germany, Italy, and France. The last edition was printed at Augsburg, 1642. (2) "Itinerarium filiorum Israel ex jEgypto in terram reprnmissionis " CLyons. 1620). It is a useful commentary on the Book of Exodus.

SoMMERVoGEL, Bibl. de la c. de J., I, 911; Idem in ViG., Diet, de la Bible.

John Corbett. Barral, Louis-Mathias, Count de. Archbishop of Tours, France, b. 26 April, 1746. at Grenoble; d. 7 June, 1816, at Paris. He was educated for the priesthood at the seminarj' of St. Sulpice, in Paris, and after ordination was made secretary, then co- adjutor, and in 1790, successor, to his uncle, the Bishop of Troj'es. In 1791, he refused to take the oath to the civil constitution of the clergy, and withdrew fiom France to Constance in Switzerland and later to England. In 1801 he returned home, and was appointed, under the new concordat be- tween France and the Holy See, to govern the Diocese of Meaux, and in 1805 was promoted to the Archbishopric of Tours. During the long and harassing negotiations which Napoleon carried on with Pope Pius VII, while the latter was virtually a prisoner at Savona and Fontainebleau, Arch- bishop de Barral acted frequently as the emperor's intermediary. He was afterwards appointed al- moner to the Empress Josephine, and he pronounced her funeral oration. Later still he was named a senator and a count of the Empire. Oc the down- fall of Napoleon, the archbishop took his seat in the Chamber of Peers under Louis XVIII, and ir, the government of the "Hundred Days", which followed on the return of Napoleon from Elba, he still retained his political position. On the second restoration of the Bourbons, however, he was obliged to resign, and from this time till his death, which occurred in the following year, he confined himself entirely to the administration of his archdiocese. He has left among other works: — "Fragments relatifs k I'histoire ecclfeiasticjue des premieres ann^es dvi XIX"^ siccle " (Paris, 1814); and a post- humous work, published by his brother: "Defense des liberies de I'^glise gallicane et de I'assembl^e du clergd de France tenue en 1682, ou refutation de plusieurs ouvrages publics rdcemment en Angle- terre sur rinfaillibilit^ dn Pape" (Paris, 1817).

RoHRBACHER. Histulre universelle de I'egliae catholique (Paris, 1883); DEBlDOfR, Histoire des rapports de Veglise et de letat en France de 1789 a 1870 (Paris, 1898); Baudhillart, Quatre cents ana de concordat (Paris, 1905); Sevestre, L'hia- toire du concordat de 1801 (Paris, 1905); Sicard, L'Ancien elerge de France, les evegues pendant la rei'olution (Paris, 1903).

Edward A. Gilligan.

Barrande, Joachim, French palsontologist, b. at Sangues (Haute-Loire), 11 August, 1799; d. at Frohsdorff, near Vienna, 5 October, 1883. He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and was selected by Charles X to be the tutor of his grand- son, the Due de Bordeaux, also known as the Count de Chambord. When the king abdicated in 1830 he accompanied the royal family to England and Scot- land and finally to Prague. He continued throughout his life on terms of intimate friendship with the duke, who, after the death of the king, took up his residence at Froh.sdorff, and he acted also as the administrator of his property. Barrande's interest was early awakened in the fossil remains of his adopted country and their distribution in the various strata. The