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Bishop England, and was ordained priest at Charles- ton, S. C, 24 September, 1825. After ministering for several years in Georgia, in which State he opened the first Catholic day school at Savannah, he was made Vicar-General of the Diocese of Charleston and superior of the seminarj' in 184-}, while still re- taining charge of the parish at Augusta, Georgia. In 1S53 he was appointed Vicar-General of Savannah, under Bishop Gartland, and when, in 1854, that prelate died of yellow fever, he was named adniift- istrator of the diocese, and as such attended the Eighth Provincial Council of Baltimore, in May, 1855. He was then appointed to the vacant see and consecrated at Baltimore, 2 August, 1857. He governed the diocese with energy and was especially notable during his missionary labours for his charity and zeal in several yellow-fever epidemics. Ill health forcing him to make a \'isit (July, 1859) to Europe, he died at the house of the Brothers of St. John of God, in Paris, 19 November, 1859, having lost his reason some time before his death. His body was brought back to Savannah for burial, in September, 1865.

Shea, Hist. Cath. Ch. in U. S. (New York, 1904); Reuss, Biug. Cycl. of the Cath. Hierarchy (Milwaukee, Wis., 1898); Clarke, Lives of the Deceased Bishops (New York, 1872); Catholic Almanac, 1833 to 1860.

Thomas F. Meehan.

Barry, Patrick, horticulturist, b. near Belfast, Ireland, May, 1816; d. at Rochester, New York, U. S. A., 23 June, 1890. After teaching for a while in his native land, he emigrated to America in 1836 and was employed by a nurserjTuan at Flushing, Long Island. In 1849 he became a partner in the same business with George EUwanger at Rochester, New York. The firm took the lead in importing from abroad or developing by culture improved varieties of flowering plants and fruits, hardy exotics, and introducing to cultivation wild species of shade trees. Their nurseries developed into the largest in the country. Barry •uTote extensively on subjects connected with pomology and flower-gardening, and edited "The Genesee Farmer" from 1844 to 1852, and "The Horticulturalist" from 1852 to 1854. His published works include a "Treatise on the Fruit Garden" (New York, 1851; new ed. 1872) and a "Catalogue of the American Pomological Society".

Cycl. of Am. Biog. (New Y'ork, 1900).

Thomas F. Meehan.

Barry, Patjl de, b. at Leucate in 1587; d. at Avignon, 28 July, 1661. He was a member of the Society of Jesus, rector of the Jesuit colleges at Aix, Nimes, and Avignon, and Pro\-incial of Lyons. He composed a number of devotional works on the Blessed Virgin, St. Joseph, and the saints, and a "Pensez-y-bien", which latter had a large circulation and has been translated into several languages. The only ones of his works translated into EngUsh are "Pious Remarks upon the Life of St. Joseph", published in 1600; the "Glories of St. Joseph" (Dublin, 1835); "Devotions to St. Joseph ", edited by the Rev. G. Tickell, S.J. (London, 187-).

Bihliothcqiie de la compagnie de .Jesus, I, 945.

S. H. Frisbee.

Barry, Thomas Francis. See Chatham, Diocese of.

Barsanians. See Moxophysitism.

Barthe, John Mary. See Trichinopolt, Dio- cese of.

Barthel, Johann Caspar, a German canonist, b. 10 June, 1697, at Kitzingen, Bavaria; d. 8 April, 1771. He was the son of a fisherman, attended the schools of his native place, and from 1709 to 1715 studied at the Jesuit College at Wurzburg. In 1715 he entered the seminarj' of the latter city and in

1721 was ordained priest. Christopher von Hutten, Prince-Bishop of Wiirzburg, sent him, in 1725, to Rome to study ecclesiastical law under Prosper Lambertini, later Pope Benedict XIV. Barthel returned as Doctor Viriusque Juris, in 1727, to Wiirzburg, where he became president of the semi- nary and (1728) professor of canon law at the uni- versity. Other ecclesiastical and academical hon-- ours, among them the vice-chancellorship of the university (1754), were conferred upon him. He took an active part in settling the controversy occasioned by the erection of the new Diocese of Fulda (1752). His chief importance, however, lies in his career as a teacher. His work in that line was appreciated by both Catholics and Prot- estants, and his lectures were circulated at various schools. He broke with the traditional method in canonical science, being one of the first to adopt the historico-critical treatment in Germany. His efforts to distinguish between the essentials and nonessentials in Catholic doctrines, and his attribu- tion of excessive power to the State in its relations with the Church caused his opinions to be denounced at Rome as unorthodox. In his "Promemorid" (1751) he submitted his views and method to his former teacher, Benedict XIV, and obtained a favourable decision. His works, apart from what was written in the Fulda controversy, as "De Pallio" (1753), deal principally with the relations between Church and State, especially in Germany. Several of them are found in the "Opuscula juridica varii argument i" (Wiirzburg, 1765, 1771).

Stamminger in Kirchenlejr., I, 2051, 2052; Schulte, Die Geschichle d. Quellen in Lit. des kan. Rechls (Stuttgart. 1875-80), III, i, 183-185; Idem, Allg. deutsch. Biograph. (Xeip- zig, 187.5—), II, 103.

N. A. Weber.

Barthelemy, Jean-Jacques, a celebrated French numismatologist and ■nTiter, b. at Cassis (Provence), 1716; d. in Paris, 1795. He began his classical studies at the College of the Oratory in Marseilles, took up philosophy and theology at the Jesuits' college, and finally attended the seminary of the Lazarists, where he devoted most of his time to Oriental languages. He soon became renowned for his scholarship and earnestness in learned researches, in which he rivalled the Humanists of the Renais- sance. Having completed his course, he received the tonsure and wore the ecclesiastical habit without taking Holy orders. For several years he lived in his lonely residence at Aubagne, near Marseilles, devoting himself entirely to numismatics, under the direction of his friend, M. Carj' of Mar.seilles. In 1744, he went to Paris and became secretary to M. de Boze, keeper of the medals at the King's Library, and three years later he was elected to the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. In 1753, he succeeded M. de Boze and remained in this position until the Revolution, during his term nearly doubling the collection.

In 1754, he was sent to Italy on a scientific mission. On his way, he gathered a large number of medals, and conceived the idea of the book which made his name famous, "Voyage du Jeuno Anacharsis en Grece vers le milieu du IV'= siecle avant I'ere ^•ul- gaire". This book, begun in 1756, was not finished until 1788, and was a description of ancient Greece, of Hellenic civilization, institutions, arts, history philosophy, and literature, appealing to everj- class by reason of its charming narratives and vi\-id pict- ures. In successive reprints and English trans- lations (London, 1790, 1800), it still finds readers. Recent archaeological discoveries have shown some of the statements to be erroneous, but on the whole the book remains a verj' successful attempt to diffuse a correct knowledge of Greek manners and customs. From the time of Barthelemy's journey through Italy,