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BARTHOLI


313


BARTHOLOMEW


the Duke of Choiseul had been his patron and had given him many pensions and benefices. After the fall of his friend (1770), Barth^lemy followed him into exile at Chanteloup, near Amboise, where unlike the abbes tie cour he was busily engaged in polishing his elaborate literary productions. He was elected to the French Academy in 1789. During the Revo- lution, he was arrested (September, 1793) and con- fined in a prison for a few days. On his release, he declined to resume his functions as keeper of the medals, and having been despoiled of his fortune by the Revolution died in poverty. Besides the "Voy- age du jeune Anacharsis", Barth^lemy has left a number of essays on Oriental languages and archte- ology, originally read before the Academy of In- scriptions and Belles-Lett res; "Les amours de Caryte €t de Polydore", a novel illustrating ancient man- ners; "Un voyage en Italie"; and "M^moires" of his life. His works were edited by Villenave (1821). Barth^lemy, Memoires (works. 1821), I; Mancini-Niver- NAls, Essai 8ur la vie de J. J. Barthclemy (Paris. 1795): Sainte- Beuve, Cauaeries du Lundi. VII; Villemain, Tableau de la KUerature franfaise au XYIII' siicle (Paris, 1828), xlii; Ville- nave in Barthdlemy's works (1821), I.

Louis N. Delamarre.

Bartholi, Francesco della Rossa, Friar Minor and chronicler, died c, 1272. Little is known of his life save what may be gathered from his own writ- ings, A native of Assisi, he is found in 1312 as a student in Perugia, and in 1316 at Cologne, whence he returned to Umbria bearing many relics, includ- ing those of St. Louis, King of France, given him by the latter's daughter, Princess Blanche, who had be- come a Poor Clare. In 1320 and in 1326, he was lector of theology at the Porziuncula, in 1332 guar- dian at S. Damiano and in 1334 he was at the Sacro Convento. He appears to have lived to a great age. He was acquainted with Marinus of Assisi, Blessed John of La Verna, Alvarus Pelagius and other well- known Franciscans. Whether he is to be identified with the Francesco Rubea who is mentioned among the partisans of Michael de Cesena or with the Fran- ciscus de Assisio who was long imprisoned at Florence on a charge of heresy is a matter of conjecture. Although Bartholi WTOte several works including a history of the Passion, he is best known for his "Tractatus de Indulgentia Sanctae Maria; de Portiun- cula" composed about 1335. He spent many of his later years in retoucliing and completing this treatise, which is of great importance for the history of the origin and evolution of the Indulgence, in so far as it comprises a complete collection of the ecclesiastical information and popular legends then obtainable on the subject. It was first published by Paul Sabatier ■with a wealth of critical apparatus in the "Collec- tion d'Etudes" (Paris, 1900, Vol. II). (See Porti-

TJNCULA.)

Wadding. Script. Ord. Min. (1650). 114; Sbaralea, Sup- plementum (1806), 245; Mazzuchelli, Scritlori d'llalia (1758), II, 1. 441-442; NARDUrn, Giunte at Mazzuchelli (1884), 60; Faloci in Miscell. Francesrnna (1SS7). 11. 149-153; Van Ortroy in Analect. BoUand. (1902), X.XI, .•!72-380.

Paschal Robinson, Bartholomseus a Martyribus. See Bartholo- mew OF Buaga.

Bartholomseus Anglicus, Franciscan encyclo-

Eedist of the tliirteenth century. An Englishman by irth he had been profe.s.sor of theology at the L'ni- versity of Paris, when, in 1224 or 122.5, he entered the newly established Order of St. Francis in company with his countryman and fellow-profe.ssor of theology, Haymo of Faversham, and two otlier professors of the same faculty. He continued his lectures in the claustral school till 1231, when he was sent to Magde- burg in Germany. He was succeeded by his illustri- ous countryman Alexander of Hales (q. v.) who, by being a member of the university, raised the private echool of the Franciscans to the dignity of a scnool of


the university. The date of Bartholoma?us's death is . unknown. He was formerly identified with a later Franciscan and Englishman, Bartholomseus of Glan- villa, or Glaunvilla, who died about 1360, and to him the famous work "De proprietatibus rerum" was ascribed. Recent, researches place beyond doubt that the two men must be distinguished and that the authorship of the work in question must be attrib- uted to the Magdeburg professor of 1231

"De proprietatibus rerum" is an encyclopedia of all the sciences of that time: theology, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, chronology, zoology, botany, geography, mineralogy, are the subjects treated in the nineteen books of this work. We have in it the first important encyclopedia of the Middle Ages and the first in which the works of Greek, Arabian, and Jewish naturalists and medical writers, which had been translated into Latin shortly before, were laid under contribution. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Theo- phrastus. the Jew Isaac Medicus, the Arabian Haly, and other celebrities are quoted. To Bartholoma-us must be given that honour which has been accorded until recently to the Dominican, Vincent of Beau- vais, whose work exceeds by ten times the 400- page folio volume of Bartholoma^us. Like the later "Speculum universale" of Vincent, the "De proprie- tatibus rerimi " enjoyed unbounded popularity. Witness to this are the many manuscripts and edi- tions. There is hardly a large library in Europe which has not manuscript copies of it, the National Library at Paris possessing as many as eighteen. Very many editions appeared in print, at least four- teen before the year 1500, and one as late as 1601 at Frankfort. By being translated and thus made accessible to the laity, the encyclopedia of Bartholo- mseus exercised a greater influence on medieval thought than that of Vincent. Of the latter's work only the "Speculum historiale" was translated, but Bart holom^us's work went tlirough eight editions in French, two in Belgian, one in English, and one in Spanish prior to 15(J0. The work of Bartholomseus, though not fulfilling modern requirements of natural sciences, remains a valuable source of information to the student of medieval times.

Delisle in Histo-.re litt. de la France (Paris, 1SS8), XXX, 352 sqq.; Feeder, Geschichte der Studien im Franziskanerorden (Freiburg, 1904), 248, 395 sqq.

John M. Lenhart.

Bartholomew, Saint, one of the Twelve Apostles, mentioned sixth in the three Gospels lists (Matt., x, 3; Mark, iii, 18; Luke, vi, 14), and seventh in the list of Acts (i, 13). The name {Bap8o\oiJ.atos) means "son of Talmai" (or Tholmai), which was an ancient He- brew name, borne, e. g. by the King of Gessur whose daughter was a wife of David (II Kings, iii, 3). It shows, at least, that Bartholomew was of Hebrew descent; it may have been his genuine proper name or simply added to distinguish him as the son of Talmai. Outside the instances referred to, no other mention of the name occurs in the New Testament. Nothing further is known of him for certain. Many scholars, however, identify him with Nathanael (John, i, 45-51; xxi, 2). The reasons for this are that Bartholomew is not the proper name of the Apostle; that the name never occurs in the Fourth (5ospel, while Nathanael is not mentioned in the .synoptists; that Bartholomew's name is coupled with Philip's in the lists of Matthew and Luke, and found next to it in Mark, which agrees well with the fact sliown by St. John that Philip was an old friend of Nathanael's and brought him to Jesus; that the call of Nathanael, mentioned with the call of several Apo.«tles, seems to mark him for the apostolate, especially since the rather full and beautiful narrative leads one to expect some important development; that Nathanael was of Galilee where Jesus found most, if not all, of the Twelve; finally, that on the occasion of the appear-