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Florence, and Pisa. A preacher of renown, he was as learned as he was devout, as skilled in Latin and Tuscan poetry as he was versed in canon and civil law. His fame rests chiefly on his alphabetically arranged "Summa de Casibus Conscientise", vari- ously called "Pisana", "Pisanella", " Bartholomrea", and "Magistruccia". The idea if not the basis of this work was a "Summa Confessorum" by John Rumsik, O. P., Lector of Freiburg (d. 1314). Bar- tholomew's treatise was clear and concise, and it conformed to the newer laws and canons of his time. Evidently a highly useful digest, it was verj- popular and much used during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and was among the first books undertaken by some of the earliest printers of Germany, France, and Italy. Nicholas of Osimo, O. M., added a supple- ment in 1444, which also appeared in many editions. Others likewise incorporated the work in later hand- books, notably James of Ascoli, O. M., 1464, and Ange de Clavasio, O. M., in his "Summa Angelica". Apart from several MSS. on moral and literary subjects, his works include "De documentis anti- quorum", edited by Albertus Clarius, O. P. (Tar\asi, 1601) in 8vo. The same treatise in the vernacular, " Aniicaestramenti degli antichi" (Florence, 1662), came to be regarded as a Tuscan classic.

Qrm-IF-ECHARD. Scriplores Ord. Pra-d. (Paris, 1719), I, 623; Mandonnet in Did. de thiol, cath.. 436; Panzer, AetUsU Buchdruckergeschichte Niimbergs (Nuremberg, 1789), p. 18, n. 22; HuBTEB, Nomendator ilnnsbruck, 1906). II, 612.

John R. Volz. Bartholomew's Day, M.\ssacre of. See Saint


Bartholomites, the name given to Armenian monks who sought refuge in Italy after the invasion of their country by the vSultan of Egypt in 1296. The first of their number landed at Genoa, where a church of St. Bartholomew was built for them, hence their name Bartholomites. Others soon followed this first band and were established in various Italian cities, in Parma, Sienna, Pisa, Florence, Civita- Vecchia, Rome, and Ancona. To these early founda- tions were afterwards added others at Milan, Naples, Perugia, Gubbio, Ferrara, Bologna, Padua, Rimini, Viterbo, etc.; in fact the Bartholomites were both numerous and prosperous. In the beginning they observed the Rule of St. Basil and the Armenian Liturgj', Clement V acknowledging their right thereto. But in time they abandoned their national traditions for the Roman Liturgy, adopted a habit resembling that of the Dominicans and finally replaced the Rule of St. Basil by that of St. Augustine. Innocent VI, who approved this change (13.56), also confirmed the union of their monasteries into one congregation gov- erned by a superior-general and a general chapter. The superiors-general were at first elected for life, but in 1474 Pope Sixtus IV caused them to be voted for evei^- three years.

Boniface IX granted the congregation the privi- leges of the Order of St. Dominic and Innocent Vm and Paul III ratified the same; nevertheless the Bartholomites were prohibited from joining any other religious order except that of the Carthusians. Durazzo, their first cardinal protector, was appointed by Urban VIII in 1640, but they did not long enjoy t his signal advantage. Their regular observance began to decline, their ranks were but meagrely re- cruited and most of their houses had to be closed till at length only four or five were left, in which about forty monks lived as best they could. There seemed to be no way of averting this decadence. Innocent X authorized the Bartholomites to enter other religious orders or else to secularize themselves, assuring each of them a pension. He suppressed their congregation and its houses and revenues were put to new uses. Among the most noted Bartholomites were: Father Martin, who conducted the first Armenian monks to

Genoa and was their superior; Father Anthony of Pisa, who was the first superior-general of their con- gregation; Estebau Palma, who four times held the office of general and laboured zealously for the re- form of the congregation; Cherubini "Cerbelloni of Genoa and Paul Costa of ililan, who were celebrated preachers, and Scoti, Pori, Girolamo Cavalieri, J. B. Ladriani, and Gregorio Bitio who left literarj' works which were, however, soon forgotten. In their church at Genoa is still preserved the celebrated portrait of Christ known as the Holy Face of Edessa.

Brno. Relazione del principio e statto delta Retigione de' Fr. di S. Basili degli armeni in Italia; H]elyot, Hisioire dea ordrea mcnuutiques. I. 243-248.

J. M. Besse.

Bartoli, Daniello. a historian and litUrateur, b. at Ferrara, 12 February, 1608; d. in Rome, 12 January, 1685. After a brilliant course of studies under the Jesuits, he entered the novitiate of San Andrea, Rome, in 1623, before the completion of his sixteenth year. The storj' of the labours and sufferings of the members of the Society of Jesus in the Indies and Japan awakened in the youthful religious an ardent desire to emulate the zeal and devotion of the missionaries. He asked to be sent on the foreign missions, but Father Mutius Vitelleschi. the General of the order, kept him in Italy. After some years of teaching, Father Bar- toh began his apostolic career as a preacher, his sermons meeting with extraordinary success in Ferrara, his native place, Genoa Lucca, Florence, and Rome. He was engaged in this fruitful minis- try when the contemplation of the evils to youth, caused by the reading of romances, suggested one of his first books. "The Learned Man". This work was received with great applause and is said to have gone through eight editions in the first year of its publication; it was translated into French, German, and English.

The success of this venture decided the vocation of Father Bartoli as a WTiter. He was called to Rome by his .superiors in 16.50, and from that time until his death he published many works in history as well as in other departments of literature, all of them written in Italian. The best known and the most important is a history of the Society of Jesus, which appeared in Rome from 1650 to 1673. in six volumes folio, and was translated into Latin by Father Janin, S.J. Bartoli's works were collected and published in Florence in 1826, in 50 vols., 16mo. He is universally esteemed for his erudition, as well as for the purity and elegance of his style. His fellow-countrymen have honoured him with a place among the classical writers of the Italian language.

Bartoli. Opere Varie (Venice. 1716). A sketch of the- author is prefixed to the first volume. See also edition of Marietti (Turin, 1825-56); Patrignani, Menolopio for 13 Jan., p. 119; Soothweli., Biblioth. Script. S. J.. 164; BoERO, Camm. delta vita e delle opere del P. Dan. Bartoli (Bo- logT , 1865); SoMMERVOGEL, Biblioth., I, 965 so.; Feller, Diet. Histor; Cr^tineau-Joly, Hiet. de la r. de J. (Brussels, 1851), IV 261; Drews, Fasti Soc. Jes. for 13 Jan., p. 17; De Guilhermt, Menol. de la c. de J., Assistance d'ltalie. Part I.

Edward P. Spillane.

Bartolo di Sassoferrato See Roman Law.

Bartolocci, Giulio, a Cistercian monk and learned Hebrew scholar, b. at Celleno in the old kingdom of Naples, 1 April. 1613; d. at Rome, 19 October, 1687. He began his Hebrew studies under Giovanni Battista, a converted Jew, and in 1651 was appointed professor of Hebrew and rab- binical Uterature at the Collegium Neophytorum at Rome and Scriptor Hebraicus at the Vatican Library. It was here that he. with the assistance of Battista, collated the materials for his famoua work "Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica" which ap-