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BABTOLOMMEO


318


BARTOLOMMEO


peared in four volumes during the years 1675-93. The last volume was published by his disciple. Carlo Giuseppi Imbonati, who abo pubhshed a supple- mentary volume in 169-1. This monumental work contains an account of Jewish hterature and embodies, besides its numerous bibliographical and biographical data, a number of dissertations on Jewish customs, etc. -Although it has been adjudged uncritical by Richard (Simon. Bartolocci's work was adopted by Wolf as the basis of his own "Bibhotheca Hebraica". Bartoloeci died as Abbot of the monastery of St. Sebastiani ad Catacumbas in Rome.

Wolf. BM. Hebr., i, 6-9; Furst, Bibl. jud.. i, 89, iii. ludv; Nouvelle Biographie Universelte, s. v.; Jewish Encyclopedia, s. v.; Kaulen in Kirchenlericon, s. v.

F. X. E. Albert.

Bartolommeo, Fr.^^. an Itahan painter and a mem- ber of the Dominican Order, b. in 1475 in the terri- torj' belonging to Florence; d. at Florence in 1517. Hebore the worldly name of Bartolommeo di Pagholo del Fattorino and was called, more famiharly, Baccio della Porta, the nickname being a reference to the circumstances of liis family. His work as a painter characterizes the transition of the Renaissance from its early period to the time of its greatest splendour. In 1484 he entered the studio of Cosimo RosseUi, one of whose pupib at the same time was a lad of about Bartolommeo's age, Mariotto Albertinelli. The friendship between Bartolommeo and the some- what more worldly .\lbertinelU caused the two to form a business partnership in 1490 which lasted until 1512. At times the two friends were estranged on account of Bartolommeo's admiration for Savon- arola.

Bartolommeo adopted Savonarola's theories con- cerning art, painted the reformer's picture a number of times .and after Savonarola's tragic end (1498) entered the same order to wliich the reformer had belonged. Before this, though, he had painted the


The Descent from the Cross CPitti Gallerj- Florence"!

fresco of the Last Judgment, which is in the Church of Santa Maria Nuova, Florence. The upper part of the fresco depicts the Saviour, the Virgin Man,-, and the .\postles; the figures while preser\-ing their tradi- tional dignity exhibit a striking freedom in the pose. The work also shows an entirely new perception of perspective. The lower half of the fresco, painted by AlbertinelU, is also skilfully composed. Xi times, per- haps, a little more action would be preferable. Be- sides this work all that we have of Bartolommeo's first period are numerous carefully executed drawings which are in various collections. Savonarola made the same deep impression on Bartolommeo that he made on many other Florentine painters. According to Va- sari, the artist, influenced by Savonarola's preach-


ing, threw liis secular and mythological designs into the bonfire

For a nimaber of years after liis entrance (1500) into the Convent of San Marco he gave up liis art, although he did not become a priest. However, he resumed his work, ]iaLntLng Ln the style of .\ngelico, which was in agreement with the spirit of Savonarola, and also in part in the style of Masaccio and Filippino. He had pre\-iously studied the Florentine art of the time with great care and painted, above all, in the manner of this school. The influence of Leonardo da Vinci, who worked at Florence, or near by, from 1501 to 1508, is also e^ndent. The " Last Judgment" drew the attention of Raphael, who was eight years the younger of the two, to Bartolommeo. Bartolom- meo had charge of the studio of San Marco when Ra- phael came to Florence. Raphael \-isited Bartolom- meo and the acquaintance was productive of benefit to both. In 1508 Raphael went to Rome. In the same year a \-isit to \'enice gave Bartolommeo a new stimulus. The influence of the rich colouring used by Bellini and Titian showed itself in the altar-piece (in the Museum at Lucca), which represents God the Father, with St. Catherine and Marj- Magdalen in ees- tasj'. Some years later Bartolommeo went fr - a short time to Rome. Here he studied the work of Michelangelo in addition to those of Raphael. 'or a wliile he was m Lucca, but generally he woi leA at San Marco, where he finally died.

Fra Bartolommeo developed his undoubted talent for painting by the most dihgent study. In his work depth of rehgious feeling and the dignity suit- able to sacred subjects are happily united with the advance in the technic of art of his time. In per- spective, characterization of his subject, drapery, colour, grouping, and rhj'thm of pose and move- ment Bartolommeo holds to the Cinquecento, while the impression made by his devotional pictures is in no way lowered by realism or by seeking after exter- nal effect. The works which he painted to sell are not so naive and unconscious as the Fiesole pictures, for Bartolommeo came more in contact with the world. The "Vision of St. Bernard" exhibits a shy, tender grace; the "Marriage of St. Catherine" (in the Pitti Palace, Florence) has more animation although filled with the mystic depths of rehgious feeUng. Bartolommeo loved sjmimetrj' in the grouping, but he understood how to avoid monotony by varjing the position of the bodj-, the turn of the head, and by the use of other signs of movement as, for example, in the "Mother of Mercy" in the museum at Lucca. In an unfinished altar-piece a beauty of form expres- sive of the character of the personages is united to skilful variety and strict adherence to the subject. This altar-piece (in the Uffizi Palace, Florence) repre- sents the patron saints of Florence with the Madonna and Child. St. Aima who is also portrayed is some- what higher in position, while two angels sit at the foot of the altar and others are poised over the whole group.

The art with wliich Bartolommeo expressed the indi\-iduahty of his subjects is still greatly admired in small frescoes which he produced, such as the "Ecce Homo" and representations of the Madonna with various saints. The heroic figure of St. Mark in the Pitti Palace. Florence, an imitation of the style of Michelangelo, is less striking in expression and pose than in the treatment of the draper}'. A deUghtful simphcity and dignity characterize the painting of a Risen Christ btesing the world. The evangelists are with him and the world is seen as a landscape in a mirror held by two angels. Still more imassuming but yet more beautiful is a Madonna with St. Stephen and John the Baptist, .\nother canvas which is greatly admired is a "Descent from the Cross"; or, "Lamentation over Clirist". in which the expression of suffering on the faces is most finely